Crystal Structure and Electrical Properties of Lead-Free (1 − x)BaTiO3x(Bi1/2A1/2)TiO3 (A = Ag, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) Ceramics


  • Xiaoming Liu,

  • Xiaoli Tan

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa
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    • Member, The American Ceramic Society.


Ceramics of solid solutions (1  x)BaTiO3x(Bi1/2A1/2)TiO3 (A = Ag, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, 0.20) were prepared and their crystal structures, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties were investigated. It was found that (Bi1/2A1/2)TiO3-type doping compounds broadened the temperature range of the tetragonal phase in BaTiO3 and all the compositions examined displayed a tetragonal structure at room temperature. The Curie temperature (TC) was observed to increase with respect to pure BaTiO3 to the range 140°C–210°C through solid solution. Remanent polarization (Pr) tended to decrease with increased content of doping compound, whereas the coercive field (EC) rose and piezoelectric coefficient (d33) fell. The highest d33 value in the solid solutions was observed in 0.97BaTiO3–0.03(Bi1/2Ag1/2)TiO3 at 90 pC/N.