Recent investigations have revealed the great potential of Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of clinker minerals and commercial Portland cements. The usefulness of this technique for the identification of anhydrous, hydrated, and carbonated phases in cement-based materials has been demonstrated. In the present work, the application of micro-Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of the main clinker phases of calcium aluminate cements and calcium sulfoaluminate cement is explored. The main stable hydrated phases as well as several important carbonated phases are investigated. Raman measurements on the following phases are reported: (i) pure, unhydrated phases: CA, C12A7, CA2, C2AS, cubic-C3A, C4AF, and C4A3; (ii) hydrated phases: ettringite, monosulfoaluminate, and hydrogarnet (C3AH6); (iii) carboaluminate phases: hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. The present results, which are discussed in terms of the internal vibrational modes of the aluminate, carbonate, and sulfate molecular groups as well as stretching O–H vibrations, show the ability of Raman spectroscopy to identify the main hydrated and unhydrated phases in the aluminate and sulfoaluminate cements. The Raman spectra obtained in this work provide an extended database to the existing data published in the literature.