In this work, novel Y2Si2O7/ZrO2 composites were developed for structural and coating applications by taking advantage of their unique properties, such as good damage tolerance, tunable mechanical properties, and superior wear resistance. The γ-Y2Si2O7/ZrO2 composites showed improved mechanical properties compared to the γ-Y2Si2O7 matrix material, that is, the Young's modulus was enhanced from 155 to 188 GPa (121%) and the flexural strength from 135 to 254 MPa (181%); when the amount of ZrO2 was increased from 0 to 50 vol%, the γ-Y2Si2O7/ZrO2 composites also presented relatively high facture toughness (>1.7 MPa·m1/2), but this exhibited an inverse relationship with the ZrO2 content. The composition–mechanical property–tribology relationships of the Y2Si2O7/ZrO2 composites were elucidated. The wear resistance of the composites is not only influenced by the applied load, hardness, strength, toughness, and rigidity but also effectively depends on micromechanical stability properties of the microstructures. The easy growth of subcritical microcracks in Y2Si2O7 grains and at grain boundaries significantly contributes to the macroscopic fracture toughness, but promotes the pull-out of individual grains, thus resulting in a lack of correlation between the wear rate and the macroscopic fracture toughness of the composites.