Effects of trophic levels (chlorophyll and phosphorous content) in three different water bodies (urban lake, reservoir and aquaculture facility) on gill morphology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Authors

  • J. C. Shimada Borges,

    Corresponding author
    1. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária do Centro Universitário das Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
    2. Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo – ICB USP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
    • Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas, Instituto das Ciências da Saúde (ICS), Universidade Paulista UNIP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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  • A. B. B. Salimbeni Vivai,

    1. Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas, Instituto das Ciências da Saúde (ICS), Universidade Paulista UNIP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
    2. Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo – ICB USP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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  • P. C. Branco,

    1. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária do Centro Universitário das Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
    2. Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo – ICB USP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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  • M. Silva Oliveira,

    1. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária do Centro Universitário das Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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  • J. R. Machado Cunha da Silva

    1. Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo – ICB USP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
    2. Centro de Biologia Marinha da Universidade de São Paulo – CEBIMar-USP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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Author's address: João Carlos Shimada Borges, Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas – Instituto das Ciências da Saúde (ICS) - Universidade Paulista UNIP Rua Apeninos, 267 - Aclimação, CEP 01533-000, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

E-mail: jcborges@usp.br

Summary

Histological and ultrastructural analyses of gills were observed in Nile tilapia collected from three different waterbodies in southeast Brazil: an urban lake in a park in the city of São Paulo, a reservoir in a rural city, and a commercial aquaculture facility. These waterbodies were analyzed and classified as hypereutrophic, eutrophic, and supereutrophic, respectively, with 310.00, 94.00, 28.00 of phosphate (math formula μg L−1) and 65.49, 24.95, 12.83 of chlorophyll (μg L−1). A significant difference in the histological alterations index (HAI) was observed only in fish from the urban lake, with the presence of cell hypertrophy, hyperplasia, aneurism, and other alterations. When compared to the other groups, a large quantity of rodlet cells was also observed in the urban group. These results demonstrate the correlation of eutrophic states of water with gill morphology. Also discussed is the premise that large amounts of organic material dissolved in water can alter the morphology of the fish gills.

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