Genome duplications and polyploidization events are thought to have played relevant roles in the early stages of vertebrate evolution, in particular near the time of divergence of the lamprey lineage. Additional genome duplications, specifically in ray-finned fish, may have occurred before the divergence of the teleosts. The role of polyploidization in vertebrate genome evolution is a thriving area of research. Sturgeons (order Acipenseriformes) provide a unique model for the investigation of genome duplication, with existing species possessing 120, 250 or 360 chromosomes. In the present study, data from 240 sturgeon specimens representing 11 species were used for analysis of ploidy levels. Allele numbers were assessed at eleven microsatellite loci. The results provide further evidence for functional diploidy, tetraploidy and hexaploidy in species possessing 120, 250 and 360 chromosomes, respectively. The analysis also uncovered novel evidence for functional hexaploidy in the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). In conclusion, the process of functional genome reduction is demonstrated to be an on-going process in this fish lineage.