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Behavioural response of Kootenai white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus, Richardson, 1836) early life stages to gravel, pebble, and rubble substrates: guidelines for rearing substrate size


Author's address: Boyd Kynard, BK-Riverfish LLC, 28 Echo Hill Road, Amherst, MA 01002, USA.



Guidelines for creating rearing substrate for sturgeon early life stages are needed for restoration programmes creating habitats for spawning and rearing of early life stages. To determine the effects of rock size on motile early life stages, experiments were conducted in artificial streams to observe the behaviour of free embryos and larvae of Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) relative to rock size. Most (≥90%) of the free embryos in replicate test streams with 100% gravel, 100% pebble, or 100% rubble hid under rocks, with few moving downstream. There was no difference in downstream movement of free embryos among rock treatments, therefore all rock types provided cover habitat. Similarly, in rock mixture tests, with a variable percentage of pebble, small rubble, or large rubble in different tanks, even fewer free embryos moved downstream. With increasing age, larvae increasingly used the open bottom and velocity refuges downstream of or alongside rocks of any size while drift feeding. Downstream movement of larvae in both rock regime tests was affected by rock size, with significantly reduced movement relative to increasing abundance of large rock (rubble). However, in all rock mixtures, free embryos (and later, larvae when they stopped dispersing) preferred the smallest rock size available (pebble; P = 0.0001). This suggests a strong innate preference of both life stages for small substrate that is likely related to increased survival. A rock mixture of 10% gravel (16–32 mm diameter) and 30–40% pebble (diameter, 30–60 mm) should provide adequate rearing substrate for free embryos and early-larvae. The remaining 50–60% should be mixed rubble and boulders for spawning and egg rearing.

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