This study describes the reproductive biology of the Chinese minnow Hemiculterella sauvagei. The length-weight relationship, sex ratio, spawning season, size at first maturity, and fecundity were analyzed based on 685 specimens collected from the Chishui River between July 2011 and July 2012. The relationship between standard length (SL) and body weight (BW) were estimated as BW = 2.14 × 10−4 × SL2.801 (R2 = 0.839; N = 413; P < 0.05) for females and BW = 1.31 × 10−4 × SL3.001 (R2 = 0.868; N = 272; P < 0.05) for males. The female to male sex ratio, 1.52 : 1, differed significantly from a 1 : 1 ratio. Females predominated in standard lengths >12 cm. Analyses of the monthly variation in the gonadosomatic index (GSI), the monthly proportions of macroscopic gonadal maturity, and the size distribution of oocytes consistently suggested a prolonged spawning season of H. sauvagei from March to August, with a peak from April to May. Logistic curves describing the relationship between proportion of maturity (Pr) at each length interval and standard length were estimated as Pr = 1/(1 + e26.867–0.306SL) (R2 = 0.999; N = 413; P < 0.05) for females and Pr = 1/(1 + e10.522–0.142SL) (R2 = 0.999; N = 272; P < 0.05) for males. Size at first maturity was estimated as 7.4 cm for males and 8.8 cm SL for females. Absolute fecundity varied from 563 to 5052, with a mean of 2413 ± 874 oocytes per ovary. The relative fecundity was estimated to be 41–299, with a mean of 171 ± 55 oocytes per ovary. The present study provides useful information for fishery management and resources conservation.