Booster vaccination with live attenuated Vibrio anguillarum elicits strong protection despite weak specific antibody response in zebrafish



A live attenuated Vibrio anguillarum vaccine was recently established in the laboratory that induced immunoprotection against vibriosis in zebrafish, Danio rerio. To improve immunogenicity, the effects of different booster vaccination regimens were investigated using bath-vaccination in a zebrafish model. Zebrafish receiving booster doses at 2 weeks or at both 2 and 4 weeks after primary vaccination were better protected in comparison to fish that received a single vaccination. In addition, the booster vaccination induced a prolonged specific antibody response. No correlation between a weak specific antibody response and a strong protection was observed, indicating that the booster vaccination could enhance the affinity of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) rather than the amount. Moreover, changes in the immune-related gene expression of the booster-vaccinated group suggested that the booster enhanced the adaptive immune responses.