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Cylindrospermopsin: occurrence, methods of detection and toxicology

Authors

  • C. Moreira,

    1. CIMAR/CIIMAR/Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Genomics and Evolution, Porto University, Porto, Portugal
    2. Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
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  • J. Azevedo,

    1. CIMAR/CIIMAR/Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Genomics and Evolution, Porto University, Porto, Portugal
    2. Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto, Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal
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  • A. Antunes,

    1. CIMAR/CIIMAR/Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Genomics and Evolution, Porto University, Porto, Portugal
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  • V. Vasconcelos

    Corresponding author
    1. Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
    • CIMAR/CIIMAR/Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Genomics and Evolution, Porto University, Porto, Portugal
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Correspondence

Vitor Vasconcelos, Rua dos Bragas, 289, Porto 4050-123, Portugal. E-mail: vmvascon@fc.up.pt

Abstract

Cyanobacteria are aquatic micro-organisms that pose a great threat to aquatic ecosystems by the production of dense blooms, but most importantly by the production of secondary metabolites, namely the cyanotoxins. One of these is cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a hepatotoxic polyketide-derived alkaloid with well-known associated cases of animal mortalities and human morbidity. First described as being associated with liver damage, this toxin is now considered a cytotoxic and a genotoxic toxin, due to its effects in other organs and in DNA. Its occurrence has been reported so far in eight different cyanobacteria species and in several water samples from four of the five continents. With a guideline value of 1 μg l−1, CYN is now considered the second most studied cyanotoxin worldwide. It is important to review the information regarding the findings made until now about this cyanotoxin 30 years since its first report.

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