• antimicrobial resistance;
  • chickens;
  • Enterococcus sp;
  • isolation rate;
  • pigs



To evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species from chickens and pigs in Beijing and Shandong Province, China.

Methods and Results

Swab samples were collected from four farms in Beijing and two in Shandong Province in 2009 and tested for Enterococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents were determined using broth microdilution or agar screening methods. A total of 453 Enterococcus isolates were recovered, belonging to six different Enterococcus species. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin. Resistance to tetracycline (92·5%), amikacin (89·4%), erythromycin (72·8%) and rifampin (58·1%), and high-level streptomycin resistance (HLSR, 50·3%) were prevalent, while resistance to penicillins (7·9% to penicillin and 4·2% to ampicillin) was rare. The resistance rates to phenicols (chloramphenicol and florfenicol) and enrofloxacin, and high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) were approximately 30%. The vast majority of the Enterococcus isolates were classified as multidrug-resistant organisms.


Resistance of Enterococcus sp. to most antimicrobials was more prevalent in China than in European or other Asian countries.

Significance and Impact of the study

Our findings reveal a high level of antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus isolates from food animals in China and underline the need for prudent use of antibiotics in chicken and pig production to minimize the spread of antibiotic-resistant enterococci.