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Figure S1 Discrimination of each bacterial isolates via PCR using specific primer sets. The partial 16S rRNA gene fragments were amplified from four isolates of the caecal contents (strains N-11, N-16, N-24 and H-14) and one isolate from the compost extract (strains IP-95).

Figure S2 Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree showing the relationship between strain IP-23 and species of the genus Lysinibacillus. The sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa NCDO 1774T was used as the outgroup.

Figure S3 Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree comparing strain IP-9 with species of the genus Virgibacillus. The sequence of Bacillus subtilis DSM 10T was used as the outgroup.

Figure S4 Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree comparing strain IP-3 with species of the genus Anoxybacillus. The sequence of B. subtilis DSM 10T was used as the outgroup.

Figure S5 Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree comparing strains IP-60 and IP-75 with species of the genus Paenibacillus. The sequence of B. subtilis DSM 10T was used as the outgroup.

Figure S6 Growth of conventional mice. Body weight was monitored weekly for 12 weeks in the group fed potable water (control, n = 6), potable water containing 1% compost extract (n = 6), and potable water supplemented with N-11 (n = 4), N-16 (n = 4) and a mixture of N-11 and N-16 (n = 4).

Table S1 Moisture of the gut faeces in the germ-free or compost-administrated mice.

Table S2 Moisture of the gut faeces in the mice administrated with compost extract and the isolated bacteria.

Table S3 Effects of the compost or the isolated bacteria on the feed efficiency in each mouse.

Table S4 Concentrations of AST, ALT and ALP in the serum of mice orally administrated with the compost extract and the isolated bacteria.

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