Both authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Human calicivirus diversity in wastewater in South Africa
Article first published online: 11 MAR 2013
© 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology
Journal of Applied Microbiology
Volume 114, Issue 6, pages 1843–1853, June 2013
How to Cite
Murray, T.Y., Mans, J. and Taylor, M.B. (2013), Human calicivirus diversity in wastewater in South Africa. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 114: 1843–1853. doi: 10.1111/jam.12167
- Issue published online: 17 MAY 2013
- Article first published online: 11 MAR 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 16 FEB 2013 01:21PM EST
- Manuscript Revised: 11 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 11 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Received: 21 JAN 2013
- South Africa;
To investigate the diversity of human caliciviruses (HuCVs) in wastewater from small- to medium-sized communities in five provinces of South Africa (SA).
Methods and Results
Wastewater samples (51) were screened for norovirus (NoV) GI, GII, GIV and sapovirus (SaV) using real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Partial capsid nucleotide sequences were analysed for genotyping. At least one HuCV was detected in 42 samples (82%) with NoV GI being detected in 15 (29%), NoV GII in 32 (63%) and SaV in 37 (73%) samples. NoV GIV was not detected. Five NoV GI genotypes (GI.1, GI.3, GI.4, GI.8 and GI.unassigned), eight NoV GII genotypes (GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.12, GII.13 and GII.17) and six SaV genotypes (GI.2, GI.3, GI.6, GI.7, GII.1 and GII.2) were characterized.
Many NoV and SaV genotypes were detected in wastewater, demonstrating a high genetic diversity of HuCVs in the surrounding communities. Caliciviruses were characterized from several provinces in SA, indicating widespread occurrence in the country.
Significance and Impact of the Study
This study provides valuable new data on CVs circulating in SA, including the first data on SaV strains from wastewater in Africa. Environmental surveillance is especially important in countries like SA where outbreak reporting systems or routine HuCV surveillance is lacking.