Effect of pH on the in vitro susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm-grown Proteus mirabilis to the quinolone antimicrobials
Article first published online: 28 MAY 2013
© 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology
Journal of Applied Microbiology
Volume 115, Issue 2, pages 382–389, August 2013
How to Cite
Irwin, N.J., McCoy, C.P. and Carson, L. (2013), Effect of pH on the in vitro susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm-grown Proteus mirabilis to the quinolone antimicrobials. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 115: 382–389. doi: 10.1111/jam.12241
- Issue published online: 17 JUL 2013
- Article first published online: 28 MAY 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 6 MAY 2013 12:33AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 30 APR 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 15 APR 2013
- Manuscript Received: 11 MAR 2013
- mechanism of action
To examine the effect of elevated pH, as reported during urinary catheter infections, on quinolone activity against the urease-producing pathogen Proteus mirabilis.
Methods and Results
Susceptibility of Pr. mirabilis to nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin was examined in media of pH 5 to pH 10 by determination of MICs, MBCs, minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs) and time-kill assays. Elevation of media pH from 5 to 9 caused a 10-fold decrease in bacteriostatic activity of nalidixic acid and was also associated with loss of the characteristic ‘paradoxical’ bactericidal activity. Alkaline pH, however, increased both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of the two fluoroquinolones tested against both planktonic and biofilm-associated Pr. mirabilis; MBC and MBEC values for ciprofloxacin decreased approx. 6000-fold and 10-fold, respectively, between pH 5 and pH 9. Rates of kill of all three agents were most rapid at pH 7, the optimal pH for bacterial replication.
pH has a pronounced effect on quinolone-mediated killing, which may be attributed to the dependence of cellular uptake on quinolone ionization state.
Significance and Impact of the Study
These results provide rationale for the use of these agents for Pr. mirabilis eradication in alkaline environments, including urinary catheter infections: the incidence, recurrence and recalcitrance of which pose a significant burden to healthcare providers.