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The first attempt of an active integrated laboratory-based Salmonella surveillance programme in the north-eastern region of Nigeria

Authors

  • I. Raufu,

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
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  • V. Bortolaia,

    1. WHO Collaborating Center for Antimicrobial Resistance in Food borne Pathogens and European Union Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
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  • C.A. Svendsen,

    1. WHO Collaborating Center for Antimicrobial Resistance in Food borne Pathogens and European Union Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
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  • J.A. Ameh,

    1. Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
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  • A.G. Ambali,

    1. Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
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  • F.M. Aarestrup,

    1. WHO Collaborating Center for Antimicrobial Resistance in Food borne Pathogens and European Union Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
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  • R.S. Hendriksen

    1. WHO Collaborating Center for Antimicrobial Resistance in Food borne Pathogens and European Union Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
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Correspondence

Ibrahim Raufu, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin P.M.B. 1515, Nigeria. E-mail: raufuib@yahoo.com

Abstract

Aim

To identify the sources of Salmonella contamination, distribution, prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, which have significant impact on public and animal health, and international trade.

Methods and Results

A total of 1888 samples were collected by stratified random sampling from 2009 to 2011 from cattle, camels, poultry, fish, vegetables and humans. All identified Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by MIC determinations. A total of 149 Salmonella isolates comprising 17 different serovars were obtained (7·9% prevalence). Salmonella Hadar (37%), S. Eko (17%), S. Enteritidis (10%), S. Kentucky (7%) and S. Uganda (7%) were isolated from different sources. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance was generally low, but S. Enteritidis and S. Eko showed variable antimicrobial resistance patterns, while all S. Kentucky isolates were resistant to seven of 17 tested antimicrobials, including ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid. Three S. Hadar isolates revealed reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and susceptibility to nalidixic acid and harboured the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene qnrS1.

Conclusions

Salmonella serovars Hadar, Enteritidis and the previously very rarely reported Eko were the major serovars associated with human infections, animal and environmental contamination in the north-eastern region of Nigeria.

Significance and Impact of the Study

These serovars constitute a health risk to poultry, environment and human population in the region.

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