Isolation, characterization and mode of antimicrobial action against Vibrio cholerae of methyl gallate isolated from Acacia farnesiana
Article first published online: 12 SEP 2013
© 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology
Journal of Applied Microbiology
Volume 115, Issue 6, pages 1307–1316, December 2013
How to Cite
Sánchez, E., Heredia, N., Camacho-Corona, M. d. R. and García, S. (2013), Isolation, characterization and mode of antimicrobial action against Vibrio cholerae of methyl gallate isolated from Acacia farnesiana. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 115: 1307–1316. doi: 10.1111/jam.12328
- Issue published online: 15 NOV 2013
- Article first published online: 12 SEP 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 20 AUG 2013 12:30AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 5 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Received: 9 MAY 2013
- Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología de México. Grant Number: 105389
- Acacia farnesiana ;
- methyl gallate;
- natural products;
- Vibrio cholerae
The antimicrobial activity of Acacia farnesiana against Vibrio cholerae has been demonstrated; however, no information regarding its active compound or its mechanism of action has been documented.
Methods and Results
The active compound was isolated from A. farnesiana by bioassay-guided fractionation and identified as methyl gallate by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques (1H NMR and 13C NMR). The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of methyl gallate and its effect on membrane integrity, cytoplasmic pH, membrane potential, ATP synthesis and gene expression of cholera toxin (ctx) from V. cholerae were determined. The MBC of methyl gallate ranged from 30 ± 1 to 50 ± 1 μg ml−1. Methyl gallate affected cell membrane integrity, causing a decrease in cytoplasmic pH (pHin, from 7·3 to <3·0), and membrane hyperpolarization, and ATP was no longer produced by the treated cells. However, methyl gallate did not affect ctx gene expression.
Methyl gallate is a major antimicrobial compound from A. farnesiana that disturbs the membrane activity of V. cholerae.
Significance and Impact of the Study
The effects of methyl gallate validate several traditional antimicrobial uses of A. farnesiana, and it is an attractive alternative to control V. cholerae.