Table S1 Detailed pedigree of E. coli strains.

Table S2 Oligonucleotides used for constructing gene deletion cassettes.

Table S3 Primers used for cloning or sequencing.

Table S4 Oligonucleotides for strain and deletion verification.

Table S5 Verification of the gldA deletion by genomic PCR and following restriction of products.

Table S6 Requirement of pyruvate for growth of ss173, ss195 and ss251 on various PTS and non-PTS sugars.

Table S7 Mutations identified in E. coli ss251.

Figure S1 Analysis of the pykA, pykF and tdcE deletions/gene replacements in the strains ss195, ss251, ss279 and comparison with the wild-type ss173.

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