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Keywords:

  • binding;
  • DAP addition;
  • fermentation;
  • ochratoxin A;
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae;
  • sugar;
  • temperature

Abstract

Aims

The aim of this research was to study the effect of time, temperature, sugar content and addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) on ochratoxin A (OTA) removal by two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a completely randomized design.

Methods and Results

The strains were grown in a medium containing OTA (2 μg l−1), two sugar levels (200 and 250 g l−1), with or without DAP (300 mg l−1), and incubated at 25–30°C. The yeasts were able to decrease the toxin amount by c. 70%, with the highest removing effect observed after 3 days at 30°C in the presence of 250 g l−1 of sugars and with DAP; after 10 days, the toxin was partially released into the medium. The strains produced high ethanol and glycerol contents, showed high tolerance to single/combined stress conditions and possessed β-d-glucosidase, pectinase and xylanase activities.

Conclusions

Ochratoxin A removal was affected by time, temperature, sugar and addition of DAP. Moreover, the phenomenon was reversible.

Significance and Impact of the Study

Ochratoxin A removal could be an interesting trait for the selection of promising strains; however, the strains removing efficiently the toxin could release it back; thus, the selection of the starter should take into account both the removal and the binding ability of OTA.