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Pyrosequencing-based characterization of gastrointestinal bacteria of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) within a commercial mariculture system

Authors

  • K.Z. Zarkasi,

    Corresponding author
    1. Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tas., Australia
    2. School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
    • Correspondence

      Kamarul Zaman Zarkasi, Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 54, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia.

      E-mail: kamarul.zarkasi@utas.edu.au

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  • G.C.J. Abell,

    1. CSIRO Food Futures Flagship and CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, Tas., Australia
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  • R.S. Taylor,

    1. CSIRO Food Futures Flagship and CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, Tas., Australia
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  • C. Neuman,

    1. Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, Genecology Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Qld, Australia
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  • E. Hatje,

    1. Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, Genecology Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Qld, Australia
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  • M.L. Tamplin,

    1. Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tas., Australia
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  • M. Katouli,

    1. Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, Genecology Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Qld, Australia
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  • J.P. Bowman

    1. Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tas., Australia
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Abstract

Aims

The relationship of Atlantic salmon gastrointestinal (GI) tract bacteria to environmental factors, in particular water temperature within a commercial mariculture system, was investigated.

Methods and Results

Salmon GI tract bacterial communities commercially farmed in south-eastern Tasmania were analysed, over a 13-month period across a standard commercial production farm cycle, using 454 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing. Faecal bacterial communities were highly dynamic but largely similar between randomly selected fish. In postsmolt, the faecal bacteria population was dominated by Gram-positive fermentative bacteria; however, by midsummer, members of the family Vibrionaceae predominated. As fish progressed towards harvest, a range of different bacterial genera became more prominent corresponding to a decline in Vibrionaceae. The sampled fish were fed two different commercial diet series with slightly different protein, lipid and digestible energy level; however, the effect of these differences was minimal.

Conclusions

The overall data demonstrated dynamic hind gut communities in salmon that were related to season and fish growth phases but were less influenced by differences in commercial diets used routinely within the farm system studied.

Significance and Impact of the Study

This study provides understanding of farmed salmon GI bacterial communities and describes the relative impact of diet, environmental and farm factors.

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