Subjective sleep quality in relation to objective sleep estimates: comparison, gender differences and changes between the acute phase and the six-month follow-up after stroke
Article first published online: 22 AUG 2013
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Journal of Advanced Nursing
Volume 70, Issue 3, pages 639–650, March 2014
How to Cite
2013) Subjective sleep quality in relation to objective sleep estimates: comparison, gender differences and changes between the acute phase and the six-month follow-up after stroke. Journal of Advanced Nursing 70(3), 639–650. doi: 10.1111/jan.12228, , & (
- Issue published online: 23 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 22 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 20 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 27 MAR 2013
- Manuscript Received: 30 OCT 2012
- Research Council of Norway. Grant Number: 176503
- gender differences;
- longitudinal study;
- pittsburgh sleep quality index;
To describe sleep experiences after stroke using subjective and objective indicators and identify possible gender differences in sleep in the acute phase and at 6-month follow-up.
Sleep disturbances after stoke are recognized, but poorly described. Gender differences in sleep exist in other populations, but have not been reported after stroke.
A longitudinal cohort study.
Subjective sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and objective sleep was estimated with actigraphy in 100 patients in the acute phase and six months after stroke, from April 2007–March 2009.
Subjective sleep quality was better and objective wake percentage was lower at follow-up than in the acute phase after stroke. Actigraphy estimated low sleep efficiency and many awakenings at both time points. Subjective and objective measures were correlated at the 6-month follow-up, but not in the acute phase. Women's subjective sleep efficiency and total score on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were worse than men's in the acute phase, but actigraphy estimated that women slept more than men in the course of a day. Women's subjective sleep quality was better at follow-up than in the acute phase. Men reported worse subjective sleep quality, but better subjective sleep efficiency at follow-up than in the acute phase, and also had lower objective wake percentage at follow-up.
Subjective sleep quality was poor and actigraphy indicated disturbed sleep–wake patterns in the acute phase and at 6-month follow-up. Gender differences existed in subjective and objective sleep in the acute phase, but not at follow-up.