Chronic unexplained orchialgia: a concept analysis

Authors

  • Susanne A. Quallich ANP-BC NP-C CUNP,

    PhD Student, Andology Nurse Practitioner, Corresponding author
    1. University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    2. Department of Urology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
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  • Cynthia Arslanian-Engoren PhD RN FAAN

    Associate Professor
    1. University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
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  • [Correction added on 20 January 2014, after first online publication: The affiliation of the author, Cynthia Arslanian-Engoren, has been corrected from ‘Department of Urology, University of Michigan Medical Center’ to ‘University of Michigan School of Nursing’]

Abstract

Aims

To conduct an analysis of the concept of chronic unexplained orchialgia.

Background

Chronic unexplained orchialgia is a concept unique to men's health; however, clarity is lacking regarding the precise meaning of the key attributes of this important concept.

Design

Walker and Avant's framework was used to guide this concept analysis.

Data sources

Literature sources included bibliographic databases.

Review methods

Literature published in English from January 1970 to December 31, 2012 was reviewed. Thematic analysis identified critical attributes, antecedents and consequences of the concept.

Results

Based on the analysis, a contemporary definition for chronic unexplained orchialgia is proposed, rooted in the concept of chronic pain. This definition is based on the concept analysis and the defining attributes that were identified in the literature. Chronic unexplained orchialgia is a subjective negative experience of adult men, perceived as intermittent or continuous pain of variable intensity, present at least three months, localizing to the testis(es) in the absence of objective organic findings and that interferes with quality of life.

Conclusion

This analysis provides a precise definition for chronic unexplained orchialgia and distinguishes it from other similar terms. This concept analysis provides conceptual clarity that can guide understanding and development of a conceptual framework, middle range theory, or situation-specific theory. Further exploration of this concept is recommended to uncover the influence of social, sexual and cultural factors.

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