Development and psychometric testing of the ‘Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions’ index
Version of Record online: 7 MAY 2014
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Journal of Advanced Nursing
Volume 70, Issue 12, pages 2952–2963, December 2014
How to Cite
2014) Development and psychometric testing of the ‘Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions’ index. Journal of Advanced Nursing 70(12), 2952–2963. doi: 10.1111/jan.12436& (
- Issue online: 6 NOV 2014
- Version of Record online: 7 MAY 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 29 MAR 2014
- instrument development;
- psychological theory;
- skin cancer;
- skin self-examination;
- theoretical domains framework
To develop and psychometrically test the Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions Index.
Skin cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. The primary strategy used to prevent skin cancer is promotion of sun avoidance and the use of sun protection. However, despite costly and extensive campaigns, cases of skin cancer continue to increase. If found and treated early, skin cancer is curable. Early detection is, therefore, very important. The study was conducted in 2013.
A literature review and a survey identified barriers (factors that hinder) and levers (factors that help) to skin self-examination. These were categorized according to a the Theoretical Domains Framework and this formed the basis of an instrument, which was tested for validity and reliability using confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha respectively.
A five-factor 20-item instrument was used that tested well for reliability and construct validity. Test–retest reliability was good for all items and domains. The five factors were: (i) Outcome expectancies; (ii) Intention; (iii) Self-efficacy; (iv) Social influences; (v) Memory.
The Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions Index provides a reliable and valid method of assessing barriers and levers to skin self-examination. The next step is to design a theory-based intervention that can be tailored according to individual determinants to behaviour change identified by this instrument.