Journal of Animal Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 83 Issue 4

July 2014

Volume 83, Issue 4

Pages 741–1001

  1. In Focus

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. Physiological ecology
    4. Evolutionary ecology
    5. Population ecology
    6. Parasite and disease ecology
    7. Macroecology
    8. Life histories
    9. Trophic interactions
    10. Behavioural ecology
    11. Community ecology
    12. Spatial ecology
    1. You have free access to this content
      Extracting order from elegant chaos: implications of the marine diversity spectrum (pages 741–743)

      Thomas J. Webb

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12242

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      This article discusses a landmark paper published in this issue by Reuman et al. (2014) in which the authors construct a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems and test it using widely-available data on the communities living in all of the world's coastal seas.

  2. Physiological ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. Physiological ecology
    4. Evolutionary ecology
    5. Population ecology
    6. Parasite and disease ecology
    7. Macroecology
    8. Life histories
    9. Trophic interactions
    10. Behavioural ecology
    11. Community ecology
    12. Spatial ecology
    1. Heat and immunity: an experimental heat wave alters immune functions in three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus) (pages 744–757)

      Janine Dittmar, Hannah Janssen, Andra Kuske, Joachim Kurtz and Jörn P. Scharsack

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12175

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      Heat waves become more frequent events during climate change and may influence host–parasite interactions. Here, we show that the activity of the immune system of an ectothermic animal species is temperature-dependent and suggest that heat waves may immunocompromise host species, thereby potentially facilitating the spread of infectious diseases.

    2. Body size-mediated starvation resistance in an insect predator (pages 758–768)

      André Gergs and Tjalling Jager

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12195

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      Individual organisms differ in their ability to endure transient periods of starvation with consequences for life history and population dynamics. Here, the authors provide mechanistic explanations on how survival relates to body size intraspecifically when food is scarce or totally absent, and how to characterize individual differences in survival within a population.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Night warming on hot days produces novel impacts on development, survival and reproduction in a small arthropod (pages 769–778)

      Fei Zhao, Wei Zhang, Ary A. Hoffmann and Chun-Sen Ma

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12196

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      Night warming often occurs in hot days under climate change. Here the authors investigate life-history traits of aphids at six night-time temperatures combined with a high daytime temperature regimen. Night warming raises optimum temperature for development which challenges the ‘Kaufmann effect’ and reduces nymphal survival unexpectedly.

  3. Evolutionary ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. Physiological ecology
    4. Evolutionary ecology
    5. Population ecology
    6. Parasite and disease ecology
    7. Macroecology
    8. Life histories
    9. Trophic interactions
    10. Behavioural ecology
    11. Community ecology
    12. Spatial ecology
    1. Comparative analysis of passive defences in spiders (Araneae) (pages 779–790)

      Stano Pekár

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12177

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      This paper presents a through analysis of various primary defences used by spiders. It shows that the type of defence used is influenced by the geographic distribution, diel activity and foraging mode. It also reveals which defences are primitive and which are advanced.

    2. Spatial variation in the relationship between performance and metabolic rate in wild juvenile Atlantic salmon (pages 791–799)

      Grethe Robertsen, John D. Armstrong, Keith H. Nislow, Ivar Herfindal, Simon McKelvey and Sigurd Einum

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12182

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      This is the first time survival effects of metabolic rate has been shown to vary across small spatial scales in an experimental field study, thus supporting the hypotheses that spatial heterogeneity in selection patterns can be one mechanism facilitating maintenance of intra-population variation in this fitness-related trait.

  4. Population ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. Physiological ecology
    4. Evolutionary ecology
    5. Population ecology
    6. Parasite and disease ecology
    7. Macroecology
    8. Life histories
    9. Trophic interactions
    10. Behavioural ecology
    11. Community ecology
    12. Spatial ecology
    1. Anatomy of a population cycle: the role of density dependence and demographic variability on numerical instability and periodicity (pages 800–812)

      Jeffrey R. Row, Paul J. Wilson and Dennis L. Murray

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12179

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      The role of direct and delayed density dependence in generating population cyclicity are well established, but there remains uncertainty in how they interact with demographic vital rates to contribute to cyclic variation. This study reveals how the type of density dependence and its effect on demographic rates can generate spatiotemporal variation in cyclic dynamics, independent of changes in the strength of density dependence.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Concurrent effects of age class and food distribution on immigration success and population dynamics in a small mammal (pages 813–822)

      Alice Rémy, Jean-François Le Galliard, Morten Odden and Harry P. Andreassen

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12184

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      The authors test, for the first time, the concurrent effects of the spatial distribution of food and immigrant age class on the success and impact of immigration. The results suggest that different individual traits are involved at different stages of the immigration process and that demographic consequences of immigration are context dependent.

    3. The invasion of southern South America by imported bumblebees and associated parasites (pages 823–837)

      Regula Schmid-Hempel, Michael Eckhardt, David Goulson, Daniel Heinzmann, Carlos Lange, Santiago Plischuk, Luisa R. Escudero, Rahel Salathé, Jessica J. Scriven and Paul Schmid-Hempel

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12185

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      This study documents how two species of bumblebees have spread since their introduction, what parasites they carry, and what their genetic population structure is. Taken together, the data show an unprecedented, very rapid invasive spread of one species, probably facilitated by associated parasites. The geographical scale of this invasion event affects the entire southern half of South America (B. dahlbomii, photograph P. Schmid-Hempel).

  5. Parasite and disease ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. Physiological ecology
    4. Evolutionary ecology
    5. Population ecology
    6. Parasite and disease ecology
    7. Macroecology
    8. Life histories
    9. Trophic interactions
    10. Behavioural ecology
    11. Community ecology
    12. Spatial ecology
    1. Warmer temperatures increase disease transmission and outbreak intensity in a host–pathogen system (pages 838–849)

      Bret D. Elderd and James R. Reilly

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12180

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      The effects of climate change on disease transmission usually involve examining differences in transmission rates under various temperature regimes. Using empirical data from a field experiment, the authors show that variability about the rate of transmission may be equally if not more important when considering global warming.

    2. Natural malaria infection reduces starvation resistance of nutritionally stressed mosquitoes (pages 850–857)

      Fabrice Lalubin, Aline Delédevant, Olivier Glaizot and Philippe Christe

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12190

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      The authors find, for the first time using a natural avian malaria model system, that naturally infected mosquitoes suffered reduced survival only under nutritionally stressing conditions. Hence, glucose availability may likely shape the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes in their natural habitat – a result of significant importance for epidemiology and the control of malaria.

  6. Macroecology

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. Physiological ecology
    4. Evolutionary ecology
    5. Population ecology
    6. Parasite and disease ecology
    7. Macroecology
    8. Life histories
    9. Trophic interactions
    10. Behavioural ecology
    11. Community ecology
    12. Spatial ecology
    1. Dispersal, niche breadth and population extinction: colonization ratios predict range size in North American dragonflies (pages 858–865)

      Shannon J. McCauley, Christopher J. Davis, Earl E. Werner and Michael S. Robeson II

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12181

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      Species range size affects their risk of extinction and can shape their response to climate change. This study of range size in dragonflies reveals that species traits and population dynamics are related to their range size, more dispersive species and those with higher colonization to extinction ratios had larger ranges.

  7. Life histories

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. Physiological ecology
    4. Evolutionary ecology
    5. Population ecology
    6. Parasite and disease ecology
    7. Macroecology
    8. Life histories
    9. Trophic interactions
    10. Behavioural ecology
    11. Community ecology
    12. Spatial ecology
    1. Temperature-related variation in growth rate, size, maturation and life span in a marine herbivorous fish over a latitudinal gradient (pages 866–875)

      Elizabeth D. L. Trip, Kendall D. Clements, David Raubenheimer and J. Howard Choat

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12183

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      A long-standing hypothesis predicts that marine piscine herbivory is restricted to warmer latitudes. This study shows that temperature, not nutritional ecology, has a pervasive influence on the demography of a marine herbivorous fish and argues against the hypothesis that marine herbivorous fishes are nutritionally compromised at latitudes exceeding 30°.

    2. Multiple aspects of plasticity in clutch size vary among populations of a globally distributed songbird (pages 876–887)

      David F. Westneat, Veronika Bókony, Terry Burke, Olivier Chastel, Henrik Jensen, Thomas Kvalnes, Ádám Z. Lendvai, András Liker, Douglas Mock, Julia Schroeder, P. L. Schwagmeyer, Gabriele Sorci and Ian R. K. Stewart

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12191

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      Here, the authors describe a complex pattern of within-individual flexibility in house sparrow clutch size. Particular aspects of flexibility vary among populations, but not as predicted by life-history theory. This has implications for understanding plasticity in life-history traits in general, and hypotheses about clutch size in particular. Photo credit to H. Jensen.

    3. Experimentally decoupling reproductive investment from energy storage to test the functional basis of a life-history trade-off (pages 888–898)

      Robert M. Cox, Matthew B. Lovern and Ryan Calsbeek

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12228

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      This study uses a unique experimental design to alter reproductive investment and then decouple this manipulation from its downstream effects on energy storage in a wild lizard population. The results challenge the common assumption that life-history trade-offs between reproduction and survival arise from underlying energy-allocation trade-offs.

  8. Trophic interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. Physiological ecology
    4. Evolutionary ecology
    5. Population ecology
    6. Parasite and disease ecology
    7. Macroecology
    8. Life histories
    9. Trophic interactions
    10. Behavioural ecology
    11. Community ecology
    12. Spatial ecology
    1. Inducible offences affect predator–prey interactions and life-history plasticity in both predators and prey (pages 899–906)

      Osamu Kishida, Zacharia Costa, Ayumi Tezuka and Hirofumi Michimae

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12186

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      Trait changes in predator individuals, inducible offences, are well known examples of phenotypic plasticity, but less understood is how inducible offences affect predator-prey interactions. This study demostrates that inducible offences of predatory salamanders (Hynobius retardatus) have strong impacts on trophic interaction and predator and prey phenotypes across multiple life stages. Photo is a H. retardatus salsamander larva with offensive phenotype in a natural pond.

    2. Do stage-specific functional responses of consumers dampen the effects of subsidies on trophic cascades in streams? (pages 907–915)

      Takuya Sato and Katsutoshi Watanabe

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12192

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      This is the first and novel study showing how the stage-specific functional responses of consumers are important to determine the strength of trophic cascade in the ecosystems that receive resource subsidies.

  9. Behavioural ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. Physiological ecology
    4. Evolutionary ecology
    5. Population ecology
    6. Parasite and disease ecology
    7. Macroecology
    8. Life histories
    9. Trophic interactions
    10. Behavioural ecology
    11. Community ecology
    12. Spatial ecology
    1. Towards an energetic landscape: broad-scale accelerometry in woodland caribou (pages 916–922)

      Anna A. Mosser, Tal Avgar, Glen S. Brown, C. Spencer Walker and John M. Fryxell

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12187

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      One of the most difficult challenges in ecology is understanding the costs and benefits for animals living in complex landscapes under highly variable environmental conditions. Here, the authors show how accelerometers attached to radiocollars can be used to assess spatial and temporal variation in energetic costs facing free-ranging caribou in Canada's boreal forest.

    2. Behavioural and physiological responses of limpet prey to a seastar predator and their transmission to basal trophic levels (pages 923–933)

      Tatiana Manzur, Francisco Vidal, José F. Pantoja, Miriam Fernández and Sergio A. Navarrete

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12199

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      In an intertidal predator–prey system, the authors investigate the interplay among behavioural and physiological responses to predator-induced stress, demonstrating important energetic costs that can have long-lasting effects and can be transferred through the community.

    3. Revisiting food-based models of territoriality in solitary predators (pages 934–942)

      José V. López-Bao, Alejandro Rodríguez, Miguel Delibes, José M. Fedriani, Javier Calzada, Pablo Ferreras and Francisco Palomares

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12226

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      This paper shows that territoriality in the Iberian lynx is not related to food. Lynx adopt an obstinate strategy of territoriality consisting in defending exclusive areas across a broad prey availability gradient. The authors suggest the occurrence of population regulation through territoriality.

  10. Community ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. Physiological ecology
    4. Evolutionary ecology
    5. Population ecology
    6. Parasite and disease ecology
    7. Macroecology
    8. Life histories
    9. Trophic interactions
    10. Behavioural ecology
    11. Community ecology
    12. Spatial ecology
    1. Niche filtering rather than partitioning shapes the structure of temperate forest ant communities (pages 943–952)

      David Fowler, Jean-Philippe Lessard and Nathan J. Sanders

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12188

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      This work combines experimental, phylogenetic and null modelling approaches to ask an age-old question: How do species co-occur at the same place at the same time? The experiments were carried out in forest sites such as this one in southern Appalachia.

    2. Predator effects on a detritus-based food web are primarily mediated by non-trophic interactions (pages 953–962)

      Nabil Majdi, Anatole Boiché, Walter Traunspurger and Antoine Lecerf

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12189

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      The authors show experimentally that non-trophic effects override lethally transmitted top-down predator impacts on an aquatic detritus-based ecosystem. Specifically, the results hint at interesting mechanisms by which the predatory flatworm Polycelis felina enhances detritus processing and colonization.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The marine diversity spectrum (pages 963–979)

      Daniel C. Reuman, Henrik Gislason, Carolyn Barnes, Frédéric Mélin and Simon Jennings

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12194

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      This work demonstrates and explains for the first time a global phenomenon of how species diversity varies with body size in marine systems.

  11. Spatial ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. Physiological ecology
    4. Evolutionary ecology
    5. Population ecology
    6. Parasite and disease ecology
    7. Macroecology
    8. Life histories
    9. Trophic interactions
    10. Behavioural ecology
    11. Community ecology
    12. Spatial ecology
    1. Spatial analyses for nonoverlapping objects with size variations and their application to coral communities (pages 980–990)

      Soyoka Muko, Ichiro K. Shimatani and Yoko Nozawa

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12193

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      New pairwise statistics using minimum distances between objects are introduced to analyse the spatial patterns of nonoverlapping objects that vary in size. The utility is demonstrated by comparison with the conventional point process statistics and the grid-based statistics applied to encrusting coral community data.

    2. Large-scale movements in European badgers: has the tail of the movement kernel been underestimated? (pages 991–1001)

      Andrew W. Byrne, John L. Quinn, James J. O'Keeffe, Stuart Green, D. Paddy Sleeman, S. Wayne Martin and John Davenport

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12197

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      Here, badger movements were studied at the largest spatial-scale hitherto undertaken (755 km2). The authors found that badger movements were characterised by a power-law distribution, and that spatial-scale had an important influence on movement estimation. A meta-analysis suggested that long-distance movements have been previously underestimated in this species.

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