Journal of Animal Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 84 Issue 4

July 2015

Volume 84, Issue 4

Pages 889–1139

  1. In Focus

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. ‘How to…’
    4. Population ecology
    5. Parasite and disease ecology
    6. Behavioural ecology
    7. Trophic interactions
    8. Community ecology
    1. You have free access to this content
  2. ‘How to…’

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. ‘How to…’
    4. Population ecology
    5. Parasite and disease ecology
    6. Behavioural ecology
    7. Trophic interactions
    8. Community ecology
    1. You have free access to this content
      On the variety of methods for calculating confidence intervals by bootstrapping (pages 892–897)

      Marie-Therese Puth, Markus Neuhäuser and Graeme D. Ruxton

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12382

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      Many scientists use bootstrapping as a method to generate confidence intervals around statistics that they calculate. But several different bootstrapping methods are available. The authors highlight that they can give quite different results, and offer advice on which to chose and how best to implement them.

  3. Population ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. ‘How to…’
    4. Population ecology
    5. Parasite and disease ecology
    6. Behavioural ecology
    7. Trophic interactions
    8. Community ecology
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      In hot and cold water: differential life-history traits are key to success in contrasting thermal deep-sea environments (pages 898–913)

      Leigh Marsh, Jonathan T. Copley, Paul A. Tyler and Sven Thatje

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12337

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      This paper reveals key features of the life-history biology of the visually dominant species at newly discovered Antarctic deep-sea hydrothermal vents, demonstrating contrasting influences of hydrothermal and polar deep-sea conditions on distribution, population structure, sex-ratio, reproductive development and global biogeography of vent endemic species.

    2. Habitat traits and species interactions differentially affect abundance and body size in pond-breeding amphibians (pages 914–924)

      Brittany H. Ousterhout, Thomas L. Anderson, Dana L. Drake, William E. Peterman and Raymond D. Semlitsch

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12344

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      The density of salamander larvae was best predicted by habitat features and increased with congener density, while larval body size was predicted by and decreased with interspecific density. This discrepancy highlights a shortcoming in using density or abundance as a metric of habitat quality or population health.

    3. Spatial variation in age structure among colonies of a marine snake: the influence of ectothermy (pages 925–933)

      Xavier Bonnet, François Brischoux, David Pinaud, Catherine Louise Michel, Jean Clobert, Richard Shine and Thomas Fauvel

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12358

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      All terrestrial colonies of marine tetrapods (e.g. seabirds, seals) contain all age classes. Sea kraits do not conform to this paradigm: many colonies are comprised of a single age cohort (e.g. neonates, adults). This flexibility is not available to endothermic marine taxa because of the need for obligate parental care.

    4. The interaction between the spatial distribution of resource patches and population density: consequences for intraspecific growth and morphology (pages 934–942)

      Bailey Jacobson, James W. A. Grant and Pedro R. Peres-Neto

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12365

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      While within-population growth variance is largely attributed to patch quality variance, this study tested whether the spatial distribution of resource patches, an overlooked landscape characteristic, and population density interact to influence individual growth and variance. The influence of functional morphology, rather than fish size/length, on competitive ability was also investigated.

    5. Drivers of climate change impacts on bird communities (pages 943–954)

      James W. Pearce-Higgins, Sarah M. Eglington, Blaise Martay and Dan E. Chamberlain

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12364

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      English bird populations are shown to be particularly sensitive to winter cold, spring temperature and hot, dry summer conditions. Resident and short-distance migrants have increased in response to warming, whilst long-distance migrants, habitat-specialists and cold-associated species have declined, along with species with greatest sensitivity to precipitation extremes.

    6. Population size-structure-dependent fitness and ecosystem consequences in Trinidadian guppies (pages 955–968)

      Ronald D. Bassar, Thomas Heatherly II, Michael C. Marshall, Steven A. Thomas, Alexander S. Flecker and David N. Reznick

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12353

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      Decades of theory and recent empirical results have shown that biological diversity is the result of feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes. The results presented here suggest that in structured populations, the ecological and evolutionary outcomes of these eco-evolutionary feedbacks will likely involve some aspect of the population structure.

  4. Parasite and disease ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. ‘How to…’
    4. Population ecology
    5. Parasite and disease ecology
    6. Behavioural ecology
    7. Trophic interactions
    8. Community ecology
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Detailed monitoring of a small but recovering population reveals sublethal effects of disease and unexpected interactions with supplemental feeding (pages 969–977)

      Simon Tollington, Andrew Greenwood, Carl G. Jones, Paquita Hoeck, Aurélie Chowrimootoo, Donal Smith, Heather Richards, Vikash Tatayah and Jim J. Groombridge

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12348

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      Using long-term monitoring data of a once critically endangered parakeet species, the authors document the effect on reproductive parameters of an epidemic outbreak of infectious disease. The negative effect on the population characterised by reduced hatch success was remarkably short-lived and associated only with individuals which consumed supplemental food.

    2. The path to host extinction can lead to loss of generalist parasites (pages 978–984)

      Maxwell J. Farrell, Patrick R. Stephens, Lea Berrang-Ford, John L. Gittleman and T. Jonathan Davies

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12342

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      This study investigates patterns of parasite specificity among threatened and non-threatened host species. Current theories of coextinction predict that single-host parasites should be most susceptible to extinction following host declines. However, the authors show that as ungulate hosts become threatened they lose multi-host parasites more often than single-host parasites

    3. Differences in host species relationships and biogeographic influences produce contrasting patterns of prevalence, community composition and genetic structure in two genera of avian malaria parasites in southern Melanesia (pages 985–998)

      Sophie Olsson-Pons, Nicholas J. Clark, Farah Ishtiaq and Sonya M. Clegg

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12354

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      Host–parasite interactions have the potential to influence broad scale ecological and evolutionary processes. In southern Melanesian bird communities, the potential for avian malaria infections to affect host populations is revealed by heterogeneous infection patterns across space and among host species that vary depending on the parasite genus in question.

    4. Context-dependent survival, fecundity and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo (pages 999–1009)

      Erin E. Gorsich, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Paul C. Cross, Roy G. Bengis and Anna E. Jolles

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12356

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      This paper reports the infection patterns and fitness correlates of bovine brucellosis in African buffalo. The authors combine field data with a matrix population model to explore how condition-driven variability in vital rates and disease effects among buffalo herds may translate into differing outcomes of brucellosis infection for buffalo population growth.

    5. Resources, key traits and the size of fungal epidemics in Daphnia populations (pages 1010–1017)

      David J. Civitello, Rachel M. Penczykowski, Aimee N. Smith, Marta S. Shocket, Meghan A. Duffy and Spencer R. Hall

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12363

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      Here the authors establish links among resources, traits, and epidemics in a host-parasite system in the field. They show that resource availability can robustly drive the traits that shape epidemics through energetic mechanisms. These results prompt a synthetic approach to the community ecology of disease.

    6. Host age modulates parasite infectivity, virulence and reproduction (pages 1018–1028)

      Rony Izhar and Frida Ben-Ami

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12352

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      This paper suggests that age-dependent effects on host susceptibility, virulence and parasite transmission could pose an important challenge for experimental and theoretical studies of infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology. The results present a call for a more explicit stage-structured theory for disease, which will incorporate age-dependent epidemiological parameters.

  5. Behavioural ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. ‘How to…’
    4. Population ecology
    5. Parasite and disease ecology
    6. Behavioural ecology
    7. Trophic interactions
    8. Community ecology
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Demographic mechanisms of inbreeding adjustment through extra-pair reproduction (pages 1029–1040)

      Jane M. Reid, A. Bradley Duthie, Matthew E. Wolak and Peter Arcese

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12340

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      The authors propose three general demographic processes that could potentially cause mean coefficient of inbreeding to differ between females' extra-pair and within-pair offspring given random extra-pair reproduction with available males, without necessarily requiring explicit kin discrimination. They then quantify these three processes using long-term pedigree and pairing data from song sparrows.

    2. Ecological opportunity leads to the emergence of an alternative behavioural phenotype in a tropical bird (pages 1041–1049)

      Janeene M. Touchton and Martin Wikelski

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12341

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      This study takes advantage of a rare opportunity by using a natural experiment to test a major idea in evolutionary ecology. Specifically, it provides empirical evidence for one of the possibilities suggested by the ecological theory of speciation by documenting behavioural shifts associated with new ecological opportunity following competitive release.

    3. No apparent benefits of allonursing for recipient offspring and mothers in the cooperatively breeding meerkat (pages 1050–1058)

      Kirsty J. MacLeod, Katie E. McGhee and Tim H. Clutton-Brock

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12343

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      In this paper the authors test the common assumption that allonursing is a cooperative behaviour, using long term data from a meerkat population, and structural equation modelling, and find no apparent benefits of this behaviour to recipients.

    4. Space-use behaviour of woodland caribou based on a cognitive movement model (pages 1059–1070)

      Tal Avgar, James A. Baker, Glen S. Brown, Jevon S. Hagens, Andrew M. Kittle, Erin E. Mallon, Madeleine T. McGreer, Anna Mosser, Steven G. Newmaster, Brent R. Patterson, Douglas E. B. Reid, Art R. Rodgers, Jennifer Shuter, Garrett M. Street, Ian Thompson, Merritt J. Turetsky, Philip A. Wiebe and John M. Fryxell

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12357

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      Using a recently developed cognitive-movement model, woodland caribou positional data, and empirically derived forage-availability and predation-risk maps, the authors evaluate multiple hypotheses regarding caribou ecology and cognition while demonstrating, for the first time, how ecological landscapes interact with sensory, memory and motion capacities to shape movement decisions by free-ranging animals.

  6. Trophic interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. ‘How to…’
    4. Population ecology
    5. Parasite and disease ecology
    6. Behavioural ecology
    7. Trophic interactions
    8. Community ecology
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Patterns of trophic niche divergence between invasive and native fishes in wild communities are predictable from mesocosm studies (pages 1071–1080)

      Thi Nhat Quyen Tran, Michelle C. Jackson, Danny Sheath, Hugo Verreycken and J. Robert Britton

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12360

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      This paper reveals that the trophic consequences of invasive species in complex communities in large spatial areas can be predicted from the interactions of the species in simplified, controlled and replicated systems. The authors show trophic niche divergence, not convergence, in species following an invasion, an important ecological outcome.

    2. Determinants of individual foraging specialization in large marine vertebrates, the Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals (pages 1081–1091)

      Laëtitia Kernaléguen, John P. Y. Arnould, Christophe Guinet and Yves Cherel

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12347

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      To perceive the mechanisms of individual specialisation, it is important to understand in which ecological contexts inter-individual variation is more likely to occur. However, due to methodological limitations, it has been little studied, especially in long-lived species with large home ranges. This study addresses these questions in free-ranging fur seals.

    3. Indirect effects of predators control herbivore richness and abundance in a benthic eelgrass (Zostera marina) mesograzer community (pages 1092–1102)

      Sarah L. Amundrud, Diane S. Srivastava and Mary I. O'Connor

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12350

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      Indirect effects of predators influence herbivore communities, overwhelming the signal of trophic processes on herbivore assemblages that are mediated through simple direct effects. By shifting the emphasis from clear trophic cascades, this study contributes to an understanding of the role of predation that advances a general view of top-down control.

    4. Parasitoid wasps indirectly suppress seed production by stimulating consumption rates of their seed-feeding hosts (pages 1103–1111)

      Xinqiang Xi, Nico Eisenhauer and Shucun Sun

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12361

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      The authors show that parasitoid herbivore interactions can completely reverse the sign of cascading species interactions as predicted by traditional trophic cascading theory for prey-predator interactions.

  7. Community ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. In Focus
    3. ‘How to…’
    4. Population ecology
    5. Parasite and disease ecology
    6. Behavioural ecology
    7. Trophic interactions
    8. Community ecology
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Measuring β-diversity with species abundance data (pages 1112–1122)

      Louise J. Barwell, Nick J. B. Isaac and William E. Kunin

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12362

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      There are many ways to measure beta-diversity with abundance data. The authors test the performance of 29 metrics against 18 desirable properties and five, more subjective, personality properties. A number of trade-offs and redundancies among metrics are identified and the implications for different kinds of ecological question are discussed.

    2. To each its own: differential response of specialist and generalist herbivores to plant defence in willows (pages 1123–1132)

      Martin Volf, Jan Hrcek, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto and Vojtech Novotny

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12349

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      The novelty of this study lies in analysing response to defensive traits by diverse insect assemblages within a phylogenetic context. The results show that the response to plant traits by insect assemblages have major implications for plant defence evolution as interactions governing plant-insect coevolution tend to be diffuse rather than reciprocal.

    3. Discriminative host sanction together with relatedness promote the cooperation in fig/fig wasp mutualism (pages 1133–1139)

      Rui-Wu Wang, Bao-Fa Sun and Yan Yang

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12351

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      The results presented in this paper imply that in asymmetric systems, symbionts might be forced to evolve to be cooperative or even altruistic through discriminative sanction against the non-cooperative symbiont and reward to the cooperative symbiont by the host (i.e., through a game of ‘carrot and stick’). This result has never been reported before.

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