Sections of this paper were presented by Bill Lindsay at the 8th European Congress on Mental Health and Intellectual Disability, Manchester, UK, in September 2011.
The Impact of Known Criminogenic Factors on Offenders with Intellectual Disability: Previous Findings and New Results on ADHD
Article first published online: 18 DEC 2012
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities
Special Issue: Mental Health and Challenging Behaviour
Volume 26, Issue 1, pages 71–80, January 2013
How to Cite
Lindsay, W. R., Carson, D., Holland, A. J., Taylor, J. L., O'Brien, G. and Wheeler, J. R. (2013), The Impact of Known Criminogenic Factors on Offenders with Intellectual Disability: Previous Findings and New Results on ADHD. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 26: 71–80. doi: 10.1111/jar.12011
- Issue published online: 18 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 18 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 2 NOV 2012
- UK Department of Health National Forensic Health Research and Development Programme. Grant Number: MRD/12/45
- ADHD ;
- intellectual disability;
- referral pathways;
- service prediction
Developmental and index offence variables have been implicated strongly in later criminal behaviour and service pathways and this paper investigated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which, with conduct disorder, has emerged from previous studies on offenders. ADHD and conduct disorder are over-represented among criminal populations when compared to the general population. The present authors reviewed the extent to which ADHD affected the presentation of offenders with intellectual disability.
Information related to index behaviour, history of problem behaviours, childhood adversity and psychiatric diagnoses was recorded in 477 referrals to forensic intellectual disability services. Comparisons were made between those with a previous diagnosis of ADHD and those without.
The ADHD group showed higher proportions of physical aggression, substance use, previous problems including aggression, sexual offences and property offences, birth problems and abuse in childhood. Effect sizes were small.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with conduct disorder is associated with a greater degree and history of problematic behaviour in offenders with intellectual disability.