Because the literature suggests significant differences in the adoption rate of traditional innovations and those innovations classified as preventive, we examine the effectiveness of the constructs of the theory of planned behavior and social cognitive theory in predicting the adoption of preventive innovations. The current study synthesized 89 correlations from 63 studies (n = 31,158). The corrected mean correlation estimates were .51 for attitude, .52 for subjective norms, and .43 for planned behavioral control. The corrected mean correlation estimate for self-efficacy was .47. By understanding the predictor variables of the intent to adopt a preventive innovation, proponents of specific preventive innovations may be better equipped to select strategies that could accelerate the diffusion process.