How we frame the message of globalization matters


  • We thank Steven Ball, Dawn Weatherford, and two anonymous reviewers for comments on earlier versions of this paper.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Stephen Reysen, Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429, USA. E-mail:


We examine the effect of framing globalization either negatively or positively on students' emotions, perceptions, and endorsed behaviors. Participants read about the job market becoming more competitive (negative), more culturally diverse (positive), or no information was given. The results show that framing globalization negatively lowered felt positive emotion, identification with university and global citizenship identities, endorsement of pro-social values, and increased the desire to reject outgroups and strengthen the ingroup, than when globalization was framed positively. The relationship between message framing and pro-social values (e.g., valuing diversity) was mediated by global citizenship, but not university identification. Implications for global citizenship education and global citizenship identity are discussed.