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Systematic review of instruments measuring homophobia and related constructs


  • This work was supported by grants from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq).

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Angelo Brandelli Costa, Ramiro Barcelos, 2600, Porto Alegre–RS–90035-003, Brazil. E-mail:


Since its conceptualization, the construct of homophobia has been the subject of many speculations about its specificity, reach, and possibility of empirical assessment. Several instruments have been created aiming to measure the prejudice against homosexuals. Peer-reviewed articles of studies using measures to assess homophobia and related constructs were systematically reviewed in 4 databases (Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, JSTOR). The articles were classified as they displayed evidence of the instrument's validity, reliability, or both. Finally, the instruments were rated according to that evidence. Out of 1076 results, 115 studies between 1993 and 2010 were identified as relevant. Those studies used 47 different instruments. This review focused in 5 instruments that concentrated the majority of the citations. Psychometric properties were acceptable.