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Abstract

The theory of planned behavior was used to predict participants' (n = 219) sun protection intentions and (longitudinally) self-reported behavior from attitudes, perceptions of control, and subjective norms. Norm focus theory was incorporated by distinguishing injunctive and descriptive norms. In turn, subjective descriptive and injunctive norms were examined in relation to the norms of a salient referent group: university students. Referent group norms were found to be associated with subjective norms, and to influence intentions indirectly. A marginal interaction of referent group descriptive and injunctive norms was also observed on behavior. Results highlight the importance of examining indirect effects in order to capture the effect of group-level processes when multiple sources and levels of normative influence are examined.