The public–private partnership (PPP) is a popular strategy for creating global sustainable value. However, many PPPs struggle to realize their value-added potential. Why do some public–private partnerships succeed while others fail, and how may those struggling succeed? Combining supply-chain integration and social dilemma perspectives into the conversation of PPPs, we examine the dynamics and psychology of cooperation necessary for PPP success. Addressing the first part of our research question, we recognize three social dilemmas that can manifest while managing PPP supply chains: a give-some dilemma, a take-some dilemma, and a give-or-take-some dilemma. To address the second part of our research question, we present a taxonomy of strategies resolving these PPP social dilemmas through the enhancement of trust, self-efficacy, and social responsibility. We discuss implications for PPPs, supply-chain, and social dilemma literatures.