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  • Boyd, D., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), article 11.
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  • Delli Carpini, M. X., Cook, F. L., & Jacobs, L. R. (2004). Public deliberation, discursive participation, and citizen engagement: A review of the empirical literature. Annual Reviews of Political Science, 7, 315344.
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  • Foot, K.A., & Schneider, S.M. (2006). Web campaigning. Cambride, MA: MIT Press.
  • Gulati, G. J. & Williams, C. B. (2010). Communicating with constituents in 140 characters or less: Twitter and the diffusion of technology innovation in the United States Congress. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.
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  • McGeough, R.E. (2010, November). The market AS the forum: Amazon.com discussion forums as deliberative spaces. Paper presented at the annual convention of the National Communication Association, San Francisco, CA.
  • McKenna, K.Y.A., & Bargh, J. A. (2000). Plan 9 from cyberspace: The implications of the Internet for personality and social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4, 5775.
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  • Mendelberg, T. (2002). The deliberative citizen: Theory and evidence. In M.X. Delli Carpini, L. Huddy, & R. Shapiro (Eds.), Research in micropolitics: Political decisionmaking, deliberation and participation (pp. 15193). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
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  • Mutz, D. C. (2002a). Cross-cutting social networks: Testing democratic theory in practice. American Political Science Review, 96(2), 111126.
  • Mutz, D.C. (2002b). The consequences of cross-cutting networks for political participation. American Journal of Political Science, 46(4), 838855.
  • Mutz, D.C. (2006a). How the mass media divide us. In P.S. Viola & D.W. Brady (Eds.), Red and blue nation? Characteristics and causes of America's polarized politics (pp.223248). Baltimore, MD: Brookings Institution Press.
  • Mutz, D.C. (2006b). Hearing the other side: Deliberative versus participatory democracy. Cambridge, MA: University Press.
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  • Nemeth, C.J. (1986). Differential contributions of majority and minority influence. Psychological Review, 93, 2332.
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  • Newman, M.E.J. (2004). Detecting community structure in networks. The European Physical Journal B, 38(2), 321330.
  • Nie, N. H. (2001). Sociability, interpersonal relations, and the Internet: Reconciling conflicting findings. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(3), 426437.
  • Noelle-Neumann, E. (1984). The spiral of silence: Public opinion, our social skin. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Choi, S., Park, J., & Park, H. (2011, February). Twitter, a medium for social mobilizing?: An exploratory study on the use of Twitaddons.com in South Korea. Paper presented at the International Network for Social Network Analysis. St. Petersburg, FL.
  • Pew Internet & American Life Project (2009). The Internet's role in Campaign 2008. Retrieved from http://pewInternet.org/Reports/2009/6-The-Internets-Role-in-campaign 2008.
  • Pew Research Center for People and the Press (2009). Press accuracy rating hits two decade low. Retrieved from http://people-press.org/report/543/
  • Plant, R. (2004). Online communities. Technology in Society, 26(1), 5165.
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  • Robertson, S.P., Vatrapu, R.K., & Medina, R. (2009). The social life of social networks: Facebook linkage patterns in the 2008 U.S. presidential election. Proceedings of the 10 the Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research. Puebla, Mexico.
  • Shapiro, A. L. (1999). The control revolution: How the Internet is putting individuals in charge and changing the world we know. New York: Public Affairs.
  • Schonfeld, E. (2010). Costolo: Twitter now has 190 million users tweeting 65 million times a day. TechCrunch.com. Retrieved from http://techcrunch.com/2010/06/08/Twitter-190-million-users
  • Smith, A. (2011). Twitter and social networking in the 2010 midterm elections. Pew Internet and American Life Project. Retrieved from http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1871/internet-politics-facebook-twitter-2010-midterm-elections-campaign
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  • Wakita, K., & Tsurumi, T. (2007, May). Finding community structure in megascale social networks: Proceedings of the 16th international Conference on World Wide Web, Alberta, Canada). ACM, New York, pp. 12751276.
  • Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. (1999). Social network analysis: Methods and applications. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Williams, C.B., & Gulati, G.J. (2007, Aug.). Social networks as viral campaigns: Facebook and the 2006 midterm elections. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.
  • Westling, M. (2007). Expanding the public sphere: The impact of Facebook on political communication. Retrieved from http://www.thenewvernacular.com/projects/facebook_and_political_communication.pdf
  • Wojcieszak, M.E., & Mutz, D. (2009). Online groups and political discourse. Journal of Communication, 59, 4056.
  • Yardi, S., & Boyd, D. (2010). Dynamic debates: An analysis of group polarization over time on Twitter. Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society, 30(5), 316327.