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Keywords:

  • arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • electroanatomic mapping;
  • ventricular tachcardia;
  • phenotype;
  • genetics;
  • implantable cardioverter defibrillator

ARVD/C: The Triangle of Dysplasia Displaced

Introduction

The traditional description of the Triangle of Dysplasia in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) predates genetic testing and excludes biventricular phenotypes.

Methods and Results

We analyzed Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) studies of 74 mutation-positive ARVD/C patients for regional abnormalities on a 5-segment RV and 17-segment LV model. The location of electroanatomic endo- and epicardial scar and site of successful VT ablation was recorded in 11 ARVD/C subjects. Among 54/74 (73%) subjects with abnormal CMR, the RV was abnormal in almost all (96%), and 52% had biventricular involvement. Isolated LV abnormalities were uncommon (4%). Dyskinetic basal inferior wall (94%) was the most prevalent RV abnormality, followed by basal anterior wall (87%) dyskinesis. Subepicardial fat infiltration in the posterolateral LV (80%) was the most frequent LV abnormality. Similar to CMR data, voltage maps revealed scar (<0.5 mV) in the RV basal inferior wall (100%), followed by the RV basal anterior wall (64%) and LV posterolateral wall (45%). All 16 RV VTs originated from the basal inferior wall (50%) or basal anterior wall (50%). Of 3 LV VTs, 2 localized to the posterolateral wall. In both modalities, RV apical involvement never occurred in isolation.

Conclusion

Mutation-positive ARVD/C exhibits a previously unrecognized characteristic pattern of disease involving the basal inferior and anterior RV, and the posterolateral LV. The RV apex is only involved in advanced ARVD/C, typically as a part of global RV involvement. These results displace the RV apex from the Triangle of Dysplasia, and provide insights into the pathophysiology of ARVD/C.