• 1
    WHO. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 2000;894:ixii. 1–253.
  • 2
    Capuano V, Bambacaro A, D’Arminio T, et al.Correlation between body mass index and others risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women compared with men. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2003;60:295300.
  • 3
    Blacher J, Safar ME. Large-artery stiffness, hypertension and cardiovascular risk in older patients. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med. 2005;2:450455.
  • 4
    Qureshi G, Brown R, Salciccioli L, et al.Relationship between aortic atherosclerosis and non-invasive measures of arterial stiffness. Atherosclerosis.2007;195:e190e194.
  • 5
    Ketel IJ, Stehouwer CD, Henry RM, et al.Greater arterial stiffness in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an obesity--but not a PCOS-associated phenomenon. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:45664575.
  • 6
    McEniery CM, Wilkinson IB, Avolio AP. Age, hypertension and arterial function. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;34:665671.
  • 7
    Pabuccu T, Baris N, Ozpelit E, et al.The relationship between resistant hypertension and arterial stiffness. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2012;34:5762.
  • 8
    Urbina EM, Gao Z, Khoury PR, et al.Insulin resistance and arterial stiffness in healthy adolescents and young adults. Diabetologia. 2012;55:625631.
  • 9
    Nigam A, Mitchell GF, Lambert J, Tardif JC. Relation between conduit vessel stiffness (assessed by tonometry) and endothelial function (assessed by flow-mediated dilatation) in patients with and without coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 2003;92:395399.
  • 10
    Wilkinson IB, Prasad K, Hall IR, et al.Increased central pulse pressure and augmentation index in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39:10051011.
  • 11
    Arnberg K, Larnkjaer A, Michaelsen KF, Molgaard C. Central adiposity and protein intake are associated with arterial stiffness in overweight children. J Nutr. 2012;142:878885.
  • 12
    Budimir D, Jeroncic A, Gunjaca G, et al.Sex-specific association of anthropometric measures of body composition with arterial stiffness in a healthy population. Med Sci Monit. 2012;18:CR65CR71.
  • 13
    Urbina EM, Kimball TR, Khoury PR, et al.Increased arterial stiffness is found in adolescents with obesity or obesity-related type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Hypertens. 2010;28:16921698.
  • 14
    Urbina EM, Wadwa RP, Davis C, et al.Prevalence of increased arterial stiffness in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus differs by measurement site and sex: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. J Pediatr. 2010;156:731737.
  • 15
    Nielsen GA, Andersen LB. The association between high blood pressure, physical fitness, and body mass index in adolescents. Prev Med. 2003;36:229234.
  • 16
    Tuan NT, Adair LS, Stevens J, Popkin BM. Prediction of hypertension by different anthropometric indices in adults: the change in estimate approach. Public Health Nutr.2010;13:639646.
  • 17
    Labounty TM, Gomez MJ, Achenbach S, et al.Body mass index and the prevalence, severity, and risk of coronary artery disease: an international multicentre study of 13 874 patients. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012 Aug 24. [Epub ahead of print].
  • 18
    Recio-Rodriguez JI, Gomez-Marcos MA, Patino-Alonso MC, et al.Abdominal obesity vs general obesity for identifying arterial stiffness, subclinical atherosclerosis and wave reflection in healthy, diabetics and hypertensive. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2012;12:3.
  • 19
    Scuteri A, Orru M, Morrell CH, et al.Associations of large artery structure and function with adiposity: effects of age, gender, and hypertension. The SardiNIA Study. Atherosclerosis.2012;221:189197.
  • 20
    Papaioannou TG, Stamatelopoulos KS, Georgiopoulos G, et al.Arterial wave reflections during the menstrual cycle of healthy women: a reproducibility study. Hypertension. 2009;54:10211027.
  • 21
    Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18:499502.
  • 22
    Wilkinson IB, Franklin SS, Hall IR, et al.Pressure amplification explains why pulse pressure is unrelated to risk in young subjects. Hypertension. 2001;38:14611466.
  • 23
    Ounis-Skali N, Bentley-Lewis R, Mitchell GF, et al.Central aortic pulsatile hemodynamics in obese premenopausal women. J Am Soc Hypertens.2007;1:341346.
  • 24
    Barr ELM, Magliano DJ, Zimmet PZ, et al. AusDiab 2005: The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. Melbourne, Australia: International Diabetes Institute; 2006.
  • 25
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australia’s Health, 2006. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2006.
  • 26
    Abbasi F, Brown BW Jr, Lamendola C, et al.Relationship between obesity, insulin resistance, and coronary heart disease risk. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40:937943.
  • 27
    Greenwald SE. Ageing of the conduit arteries. J Pathol. 2007;211:157172.
  • 28
    Takahashi K, Miura S, Mori-Abe A, et al.Impact of menopause on the augmentation of arterial stiffness with aging. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2005;60:162166.
  • 29
    Benetos A, Waeber B, Izzo J, et al.Influence of age, risk factors, and cardiovascular and renal disease on arterial stiffness: clinical applications. Am J Hypertens. 2002;15:11011108.
  • 30
    Moncada S, Higgs EA. The discovery of nitric oxide and its role in vascular biology. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;147:S193S201.
  • 31
    Maeda S, Miyauchi T, Kakiyama T, et al.Effects of exercise training of 8 weeks and detraining on plasma levels of endothelium-derived factors, endothelin-1 and nitric oxide, in healthy young humans. Life Sci. 2001;69:10051016.
  • 32
    Monnink SHJ, Tio RA, van Boven AJ, et al.The role of coronary endothelial function testing in patients. Int J Cardiol. 2004;96:123129.
  • 33
    Herrmann J, Lerman A. The endothelium: dysfunction and beyond. J Nucl Cardiol. 2001;8:197206.
  • 34
    Wildman RP, Mackey RH, Bostom A, et al.Measures of obesity are associated with vascular stiffness in young and older adults. Hypertension. 2003;42:468473.
  • 35
    Snijder MB, Henry RM, Visser M, et al.Regional body composition as a determinant of arterial stiffness in the elderly: the Hoorn Study. J Hypertens. 2004;22:23392347.
  • 36
    Fahs CA, Smith DL, Horn GP, et al.Impact of excess body weight on arterial structure, function, and blood pressure in firefighters. Am J Cardiol. 2009;104:14411445.
  • 37
    Eckel RH, Barouch WW, Ershow AG. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Working Group on the pathophysiology of obesity-associated cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2002;105:29232928.
  • 38
    Moran LJ, Cameron JD, Strauss BJ, Teede HJ. Vascular function in the diagnostic categories of polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:21922199.
  • 39
    Zaydun G, Tomiyama H, Hashimoto H, et al.Menopause is an independent factor augmenting the age-related increase in arterial stiffness in the early postmenopausal phase. Atherosclerosis.2006;184:137142.
  • 40
    Okamoto T, Masuhara M, Ikuta K. Home-based resistance training improves arterial stiffness in healthy premenopausal women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;107:113117.
  • 41
    Tomiyama H, Yamashina A, Arai T, et al.Influences of age and gender on results of noninvasive brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity measurement – a survey of 12517 subjects. Atherosclerosis.2003;166:303309.