Impact of 5-Year Weight Change on Blood Pressure: Results From the Weight Loss Maintenance Trial


Address for correspondence: Crystal C. Tyson, MD, Sarah W. Stedman Nutrition and Metabolism Center, 3475 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27705



In this secondary analysis of the Weight Loss Maintenance trial, the authors assessed the relationship between blood pressure (BP) change and weight change in overweight and obese adults with hypertension and/or dyslipidemia who were randomized to 1 of 3 weight loss maintenance strategies for 5 years. The participants were grouped (N=741) based on weight change from randomization to 60 months as: (1) weight loss, (2) weight stable, or (3) weight gain. A significant positive correlation between weight change and systolic BP (SBP) change at 12, 30, and 60 months and between weight change and diastolic BP (DBP) change at 30 months was observed. From randomization to 60 months, mean SBP increased to a similar degree for the weight gain group (4.2±standard error=0.6 mm Hg; P<.001) and weight stable group (4.6±1.1 mm Hg; P<.001), but SBP did not rise in the weight loss group (1.0±1.7 mm Hg, P=.53). DBP was unchanged for all groups at 60 months. Although aging may have contributed to rise in BP at 60 months, it does not appear to fully account for observed BP changes. These results suggest that continued modest weight loss may be sufficient for long-term BP lowering.