Epithelial Sodium Channel Inhibition by Amiloride on Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Young Prehypertensives



Overactivity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is considered to be one mechanism underlying obesity-related blood pressure (BP) elevation. In an open-labeled, nonplacebo-controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT-01308983), the authors aimed to comprehensively evaluate the effects of amiloride monotherapy, an ENaC blocker, on BP and cardiovascular risk in young adults with prehypertension (n=17). The mean body mass index of participants was 28.45±1.30 kg/m2. Following 10 mg daily amiloride for 4 weeks, peripheral systolic BP (SBP), central SBP, and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity were significantly reduced by −7.06±2.25 mm Hg, −7.68±2.56 mm Hg, and −0.72±0.33 m/s, respectively, whereas flow-mediated dilation was significantly increased by 2.2±0.9%. Following amiloride monotherapy for 4 weeks, a significant increase in serum aldosterone was observed (5.85±2.45 ng/dL). ENaC inhibition by amiloride may be used as an early intervention to halt the progression to full hypertension and cardiovascular disease in young adults with prehypertension.