Mortality and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With a History of Malignant Hypertension: A Case-Control Study

Authors

  • Fouad Amraoui MD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    • Address for correspondence: Fouad Amraoui, MD, Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, Room F4-139, PO Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands

      E-mail: f.amraoui@amc.nl

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    • These authors contributed equally.
  • Niels V. Van Der Hoeven MD,

    1. Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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    • These authors contributed equally.
  • Irene G. M. Van Valkengoed PhD,

    1. Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Liffert Vogt MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    2. Department of Nephrology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Bert-Jan H. Van Den Born MD, PhD

    1. Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Abstract

The survival of patients with malignant hypertension (MHT) has considerably improved over the past decades. Data regarding the excess risk of mortality and the contribution of conventional cardiovascular risk factors are lacking. The authors retrospectively assessed cardiovascular risk factors and all-cause mortality in 120 patients with a history of MHT and compared them with 120 normotensive and 120 hypertensive age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and body mass index were lower in MHT patients compared with hypertensive controls, whereas blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smoking habit were similar. Median estimated glomerular filtration rate was lower in MHT patients compared with normotensive and hypertensive controls (both P<.01). The annual incidence of all-cause mortality per 100 patient-years was higher in MHT patients (2.6) compared with normotensive (0.2) and hypertensive (0.5) controls (both P<.01). Mortality of patients with a history of MHT remains high compared with normotensive and hypertensive controls. Patients with MHT had a more favorable cardiovascular risk profile compared with hypertensive controls but a higher prevalence of renal insufficiency.

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