• 1
    Keith NM, Wagener HP, Barker NW. Some different types of essential hypertension: their course and prognosis. Am J Med Sci. 1939;196:332339.
  • 2
    Lane DA, Lip GY, Beevers DG. Improving survival of malignant hypertension patients over 40 years. Am J Hypertens. 2009;22:11991204.
  • 3
    Lip GY, Beevers M, Beevers DG. Complications and survival of 315 patients with malignant-phase hypertension. J Hypertens. 1995;13:915924.
  • 4
    Amraoui F, Bos S, Vogt L, van den Born BJ. Long-term renal outcome in patients with malignant hypertension: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Nephrol. 2012;13:71.
  • 5
    van den Born BJ, Koopmans RP, Groeneveld JO, van Montfrans GA. Ethnic disparities in the incidence, presentation and complications of malignant hypertension. J Hypertens. 2006;24:22992304.
  • 6
    Bloxham CA, Beevers DG, Walker JM. Malignant hypertension and cigarette smoking. BMJ. 1979;1:581583.
  • 7
    Edmunds E, Landray MJ, Li-Saw-Hee FL, et al. Dyslipidaemia in patients with malignant-phase hypertension. QJM. 2001;94:327332.
  • 8
    Isles C, Brown JJ, Cumming AM, et al. Excess smoking in malignant-phase hypertension. BMJ. 1979;1:579581.
  • 9
    Tuomilehto J, Elo J, Nissinen A. Smoking among patients with malignant hypertension. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1982;284:1086.
  • 10
    World Health Organization. Arterial hypertension. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1978;628:57.
  • 11
    Bindraban NR, van Valkengoed IG, Mairuhu G, et al. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the performance of a risk score among Hindustani Surinamese, African Surinamese and ethnic Dutch: a cross-sectional population-based study. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:271.
  • 12
    Levey AS, Bosch JP, Lewis JB, et al. A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:461470.
  • 13
    Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in general population cohorts: a collaborative meta-analysis. Lancet. 2010;375:20732081.
  • 14
    Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, et al. Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:12961305.
  • 15
    Tonelli M, Muntner P, Lloyd A, et al. Using proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate to classify risk in patients with chronic kidney disease: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154:1221.
  • 16
    Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI). K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;43:S1S290.
  • 17
    Tonelli M, Muntner P, Lloyd A, et al. Risk of coronary events in people with chronic kidney disease compared with those with diabetes: a population-level cohort study. Lancet. 2012;380:807814.
  • 18
    Weycker D, Nichols GA, O'Keeffe-Rosetti M, et al. Risk-factor clustering and cardiovascular disease risk in hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens. 2007;20:599607.