A Large Cohort Study Evaluating Risk Factors Associated With Uncontrolled Hypertension



Hypertension is the most common primary diagnosis in the United States. Risks for long-term consequences such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and kidney disease continue to significantly increase as long as hypertension remains uncontrolled. This retrospective cohort study of 661,075 patients identified with uncontrolled hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, from a large integrated healthcare organization was conducted to examine multiple patient characteristics to determine their association with uncontrolled hypertension. Multivariate analysis revealed that compared with Caucasians, African Americans (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–1.20) were significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension, as were unpartnered populations (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.14–1.17), number of antihypertensive medications prescribed (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.33–1.41), and adherence to most antihypertensive medications. A secondary analysis found an association between uncontrolled blood pressure and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.16–1.26). Our findings suggest that the presence of these identified risk factors recommends a commitment to a more aggressive hypertension management program to prevent cardiovascular disease caused by uncontrolled hypertension.