Invasive cancers are not necessarily from preformed in situ tumours — an alternative way of carcinogenesis from misplaced stem cells

Authors

  • Rui-An Wang,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Pathology of Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    2. Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    • State Key Lab of Cancer Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
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  • Zeng-Shan Li,

    1. State Key Lab of Cancer Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    2. Department of Pathology of Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    3. Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
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  • Hui-Zhong Zhang,

    1. Department of Laboratory Medicine of Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
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  • Ping-Ju Zheng,

    1. Department of Oncology, Chang'an Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
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  • Qin-Long Li,

    1. State Key Lab of Cancer Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    2. Department of Pathology of Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    3. Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
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  • Jian-Guo Shi,

    1. State Key Lab of Cancer Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    2. Department of Pathology of Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
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  • Qing-Guo Yan,

    1. State Key Lab of Cancer Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    2. Department of Pathology of Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    3. Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
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  • Jing Ye,

    1. State Key Lab of Cancer Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    2. Department of Pathology of Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    3. Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
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  • Jing-Bo Wang,

    1. State Key Lab of Cancer Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    2. Department of Pathology of Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    3. Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
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  • Ying Guo,

    1. State Key Lab of Cancer Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    2. Department of Pathology of Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
    3. Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
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  • Xiao-Feng Huang,

    1. State Key Lab of Cancer Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Pr., China
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  • Ying-Hao Yu

    1. Department of Pathology, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Commander Military Region, Fuzhou, Fujian Pr., China
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Correspondence to: Rui-An WANG, M.D., Ph.D,

Department of Pathology of Xijing Hospital,

The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.

Tel./Fax: 86-29-847-79175

E-mail: wangra@fmmu.edu.cn

Abstract

Cancers are thought to be the result of accumulated gene mutations in cells. Carcinomas, which are cancers arising from epithelial tissues usually go through several stages of development: atypical hyperplasia, carcinoma in situ and then invasive carcinoma, which might further metastasize. However, we think that the present pathological data are enough to prove that there might be an alternative way of carcinogenesis. We propose that majority of invasive cancers arise in the connective tissue stroma de novo, from the misplaced epithelial stem cells which come to the wrong land of connective tissue stroma by accident. The in situ carcinomas, which are mostly curable, should not be considered genuine cancer, but rather as quasi-cancer. We design this new theory of carcinogenesis as the stem cell misplacement theory (SCMT). Our SCMT theory chains together other carcinogenesis theories such as the inflammation-cancer chain, the stem cell theory and the tissue organization field theory. However, we deny the pathway of somatic mutation theory as the major pathway of carcinogenesis.

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