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Keywords:

  • Pin1;
  • STAT3;
  • mitochondria;
  • restenosis;
  • vascular smooth muscle cells;
  • type 2 diabetes

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with accelerated restenosis rates after angioplasty. We have previously proved that Pin1 played an important role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) cycle and apoptosis. But neither the role of Pin1 in restenosis by T2D, nor the molecular mechanism of Pin1 in these processes has been elucidated. A mouse model of T2D was generated by the combination of high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ) injections. Both Immunohistochemistry and Western blot revealed that Pin1 expression was up-regulated in the arterial wall in T2D mice and in VSMCs in culture conditions mimicking T2D. Next, increased activity of Pin1 was observed in neointimal hyperplasia after arterial injury in T2D mice. Further analysis confirmed that 10% serum of T2D mice and Pin1-forced expression stimulated proliferation, inhibited apoptosis, enhanced cell cycle progression and migration of VSMCs, whereas Pin1 knockdown resulted in the converse effects. We demonstrated that STAT3 signalling and mitochondria-dependent pathways played critical roles in the involvement of Pin1 in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis of VSMCs in T2D. In addition, VEGF expression was stimulated by Pin1, which unveiled part of the mechanism of Pin1 in regulating VSMC migration in T2D. Finally, the administration of juglone via pluronic gel onto injured common femoral artery resulted in a significant inhibition of the neointima/media ratio. Our findings demonstrated the vital effect of Pin1 on the VSMC proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and migration that underlie neointima formation in T2D and implicated Pin1 as a potential therapeutic target to prevent restenosis in T2D.