Improving survival and efficacy of pluripotent stem cell–derived cardiac grafts
Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Volume 17, Issue 11, pages 1355–1362, November 2013
How to Cite
Don, C. W. and Murry, C. E. (2013), Improving survival and efficacy of pluripotent stem cell–derived cardiac grafts. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 17: 1355–1362. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12147
- Issue online: 23 DEC 2013
- Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Received: 29 APR 2013
- NIH. Grant Numbers: P01 HL094374, P01 GM081719, U01 HL100405, R01 HL084642
- NIH/NCRR. Grant Number: RR025015
- pluripotent stem cell;
- human embryonic stem cell;
- tissue engineering;
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be differentiated into structurally and electrically functional myocardial tissue and have the potential to regenerate large regions of infarcted myocardium. One of the key challenges that needs to be addressed towards full-scale clinical application of hESCs is enhancing survival of the transplanted cells within ischaemic or scarred, avascular host tissue. Shortly after transplantation, most hESCs are lost as a result of multiple mechanical, cellular and host factors, and a large proportion of the remaining cells undergo apoptosis or necrosis shortly thereafter, as a result of loss of adhesion-related signals, ischaemia, inflammation or immunological rejection. Blocking the apoptotic signalling pathways of the cells, using pro-survival cocktails, conditioning hESCs prior to transplant, promoting angiogenesis, immunosuppressing the host and using of bioengineered matrices are among the emerging techniques that have been shown to optimize cell survival. This review presents an overview of the current strategies for optimizing cell and host tissue to improve the survival and efficacy of cardiac cells derived from pluripotent stem cells.