Treatment with Actovegin improves spatial learning and memory in rats following transient forebrain ischaemia
Article first published online: 6 MAY 2014
© 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Volume 18, Issue 8, pages 1623–1630, August 2014
How to Cite
Meilin, S., Machicao, F. and Elmlinger, M. (2014), Treatment with Actovegin improves spatial learning and memory in rats following transient forebrain ischaemia. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 18: 1623–1630. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12297
- Issue published online: 2 SEP 2014
- Article first published online: 6 MAY 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 17 DEC 2013
This study aimed to investigate whether Actovegin, which is a deproteinized ultrafiltrate derived from calf blood, demonstrates neuroprotective effects in a rat model of transient global cerebral ischaemia. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to four-vessel occlusion to induce transient global cerebral ischaemia followed by either saline or Actovegin treatment. Sham operations were performed on 15 rats. Actovegin (200 mg/kg) or saline was administered 6 hrs after carotid artery occlusion and then daily until Day 40. Learning and memory were evaluated using the Morris water maze test over two different 5-day periods, and grip strength testing was also performed to control for potential motor impairments. Rat brains were harvested for histological analysis on Day 68. In comparison to controls, Actovegin-treated rats exhibited a decreased latency to reach the hidden platform on the second learning trial of water maze testing (46.82 ± 6.18 versus 27.64 ± 4.53 sec., P < 0.05; 38.3 ± 8.23 versus 13.37 ± 2.73 sec., P < 0.01 for the first and second 5-day testing periods, respectively). In addition, Actovegin-treated rats spent more time in the platform quadrant than saline-treated rats during memory trials (P < 0.05). No differences in grip strength were detected. Histological analyses demonstrated increased cell survival in the CA1 region of the hippocampus following Actovegin treatment (left hemisphere, 166 ± 50 versus 332 ± 27 cells, P < 0.05; right hemisphere, 170 ± 45 versus 307 ± 28 cells, P < 0.05, in saline- versus Actovegin-treated rats, respectively). In rats, Actovegin treatment improves spatial learning and memory following cerebral ischaemia, which may be related to hippocampal CA1 neuroprotection.