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Events of wound healing/regeneration in the canine supraalveolar periodontal defect model

Authors

  • Douglas P. Dickinson,

    Corresponding author
    1. Camellix, LLC, Augusta, GA, USA
    • Laboratory for Applied Periodontal & Craniofacial Regeneration, Georgia Regents University College of Dental Medicine, Augusta, GA, USA
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  • Brandon G. Coleman,

    1. Laboratory for Applied Periodontal & Craniofacial Regeneration, Georgia Regents University College of Dental Medicine, Augusta, GA, USA
    2. US Army Advanced Education Program in Periodontics, Fort Gordon, GA, USA
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  • Nathan Batrice,

    1. Laboratory for Applied Periodontal & Craniofacial Regeneration, Georgia Regents University College of Dental Medicine, Augusta, GA, USA
    2. US Army Advanced Education Program in Periodontics, Fort Gordon, GA, USA
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  • Jaebum Lee,

    1. Laboratory for Applied Periodontal & Craniofacial Regeneration, Georgia Regents University College of Dental Medicine, Augusta, GA, USA
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  • Komal Koli,

    1. Laboratory for Applied Periodontal & Craniofacial Regeneration, Georgia Regents University College of Dental Medicine, Augusta, GA, USA
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  • Cathy Pennington,

    1. Laboratory for Applied Periodontal & Craniofacial Regeneration, Georgia Regents University College of Dental Medicine, Augusta, GA, USA
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  • Cristiano Susin,

    1. Laboratory for Applied Periodontal & Craniofacial Regeneration, Georgia Regents University College of Dental Medicine, Augusta, GA, USA
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  • Ulf M. E. Wikesjö

    1. Laboratory for Applied Periodontal & Craniofacial Regeneration, Georgia Regents University College of Dental Medicine, Augusta, GA, USA
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  • Conflict of interest and source of funding statement

    The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

  • This study was supported by an award (2008-764) to Dr. Douglas P Dickinson from the Georgia Regents University College of Dental Medicine Nobel Biocare Center for Excellence, periodontics residency training grant awards to Drs. Brandon G Coleman and Nathan Batrice from the US Army Advanced Education Program in Periodontics, Fort Gordon, and by the Georgia Regents University College of Dental Medicine. Drs. Ulf ME Wikesjö, Cristiano Susin, and Jaebum Lee are supported by grants to the Laboratory for Applied Periodontal & Craniofacial Regeneration from Nobel Biocare.

Address:

Douglas P Dickinson

Camellix, LLC

1120 15th Street CA2149

Augusta, GA 30912, USA

E-mail: dougdickinson4357@gmail.com

Abstract

Aim

The objective of this research was to elucidate early events in periodontal wound healing/regeneration using histological and immunohistochemical techniques.

Methods

Routine critical-size, supraalveolar, periodontal defects including a space-providing titanium mesh device were created in 12 dogs. Six animals received additional autologous blood into the defect prior to wound closure. One animal from each group was killed for analysis at 2, 5, 9, 14 days, and at 4 and 8 weeks.

Results

Both groups behaved similarly. Periodontal wound healing/regeneration progressed through three temporal phases. Early phase (2–5 days): heterogeneous clot consolidation and cell activation in the periodontal ligament (PDL) and trabecular bone was associated with PDL regeneration and formation of a pre-osteoblast population. Intermediate phase (9–14 days): cell proliferation (shown by PCNA immunostaining)/migration led to osteoid/bone, PDL and cementum formation. Late phase (4–8 weeks): primarily characterized by tissue remodelling/maturation. Fibrous connective tissue from the gingival mucosa entered the wound early, competing with regeneration. By day 14, the wound space was largely filled with regenerative and reparative tissues.

Conclusion

Activation of cellular regenerative events in periodontal wound healing/regeneration is rapid; the general framework for tissue formation is broadly outlined within 14 days. Most bone formation apparently originates from endosteally derived pre-osteoblasts; the PDL possibly acting as a supplementary source, with a primary function likely being regulatory/homeostatic. Blood accumulation at the surgical site warrants exploration; supplementation may be beneficial.

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