Conflict of interest and sources of funding statement
Gingival labial recessions in orthodontically treated and untreated individuals: a case – control study
Article first published online: 16 APR 2013
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Volume 40, Issue 6, pages 631–637, June 2013
How to Cite
Gingival labial recessions in orthodontically treated and untreated individuals – a pilot case–control study. J Clin Periodontol 2013; 40: 631–637. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12105., , , , , .
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests. No external funding, apart from the support of the authors' institution, was available for this study.
- Issue published online: 6 MAY 2013
- Article first published online: 16 APR 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 12 MAR 2013 07:27AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 3 MAR 2013
- gingival recession;
- periodontal disease
To evaluate the long-term development of labial gingival recessions during orthodontic treatment and retention phase.
Material and Methods
In this retrospective case–control study, the presence of gingival recession was scored (Yes or No) on plaster models of 100 orthodontic patients (cases) and 120 controls at the age of 12 (T12), 15 (T15), 18 (T18), and 21 (T21) years. In the treated group, T12 reflected the start of orthodontic treatment and T15 – the end of active treatment and the start of retention phase with bonded retainers. Independent t-tests, Fisher's exact tests and a fitted two-part “hurdle” model were used to identify the effect of orthodontic treatment/retention on recessions.
The proportion of subjects with recessions was consistently higher in cases than controls. Overall, the odds ratio for orthodontic patients as compared with controls to have recessions is 4.48 (p < 0.001; 95% CI: 2.61–7.70).
Within the limits of the present research design, orthodontic treatment and/or the retention phase may be risk factors for the development of labial gingival recessions. In orthodontically treated subjects, mandibular incisors seem to be the most vulnerable to the development of gingival recessions.