Metabolic syndrome and gingival inflammation in Caucasian children with a family history of obesity

Authors

  • Khady Kâ,

    Corresponding author
    1. Oral Health and Society Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
    2. Epidemiology Unit, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, QC, Canada
    • Address:

      Khady Kâ

      Oral Health and Society Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University

      Montreal, Quebec

      Canada H3A 2A7

      E-mail: Khady.ka@mail.mcgill.ca

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  • Marie-Claude Rousseau,

    1. Oral Health and Society Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
    2. Epidemiology Unit, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, QC, Canada
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  • Marie Lambert,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada
    2. Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine, Montreal, QC, Canada
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    • Dr Marie Lambert passed away on February 20th, 2012. Her leadership and devotion to the QUALITY cohort will always be remembered and appreciated.

  • Angelo Tremblay,

    1. Department of Kinesiology, Laval University, Laval, QC, Canada
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  • Simon D. Tran,

    1. Oral Health and Society Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
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  • Mélanie Henderson,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada
    2. Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine, Montreal, QC, Canada
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  • Belinda Nicolau

    1. Oral Health and Society Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
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  • Conflict of interest and sources of funding statement

    This study was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the Heart & Stroke Foundation, the “Fonds de Recherche du Québec – Santé (FRQ-S)” and FRQ-S-Network for Oral and Bone Health Research (RSBO).

    Khady Kâ is the recipient of a PhD fellowship from the CIHR-Strategic Training in Applied Oral Health Research. Marie-Claude Rousseau holds a salary award from the FRQ-S. Belinda Nicolau holds a Canada Research Chair in Life Course Oral Epidemiology.

    The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest in this study.

Abstract

Aim

To investigate whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are associated with gingival inflammation in children.

Materials and Methods

This is a cross-sectional analysis from the baseline visit of the QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort, an ongoing longitudinal study investigating the natural history of obesity in children of Quebec, Canada. The analytic sample includes 448 children aged 8–10 years, 39% of whom were overweight or obese. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation recommendations. Gingival inflammation was defined by the level of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the extent of gingival bleeding. Sex-specific linear regression analyses estimated the associations between MetS and gingival inflammation, adjusting for potential confounders.

Results

Twenty-five children had MetS. Boys with MetS compared to those without, had a 49.5% (p-value = 0.001) higher GCF TNF-α level and 13.7% (p-value = 0.033) more sites with gingival bleeding. Moreover, for three of the five components of MetS – waist circumference, fasting plasma triglycerides, systolic blood pressure – an increase was associated with increased GCF TNF-α level in boys. No such findings were seen in girls.

Conclusion

An association between MetS and gingival inflammation was observed as early as in childhood, and may differ by sex.

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