• alveolar ridge augmentation;
  • autogenous bone graft;
  • randomized-controlled trial;
  • recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein;
  • rhBMP-2



To compare the effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in an absorbable collagen sponge carrier (ACS) with autogenous bone graft for augmentation of the edentulous atrophic anterior maxilla.


Twenty-four subjects were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, parallel-group, open-label clinical trial. Subjects either received rhBMP-2/ACS (1.5 mg/ml) or particulated autogenous bone harvested from the mandibular retromolar region. A titanium-mesh was used to provide space and wound stability. A guide was used to standardize clinical recordings using an analogue caliper. Alveolar ridge width was also assessed using cone-beam computed tomography.


rhBMP-2/ACS yielded significantly greater radiographic horizontal bone gain compared with autogenous bone graft at immediate subcrestal levels (1.5 ± 0.7 versus 0.5 ± 0.9 mm; p = 0.01); non-significant differences were observed at mid- (2.9 ± 0.8 versus 2.9 ± 0.9 mm; p = 0.98) and apical (1.7 ± 0.9 versus 1.8 ± 1.1 mm; p = 0.85) crestal levels. No significant differences in clinical horizontal bone gain were observed at 6 months between rhBMP-2/ACS and autogenous bone graft (3.2 ± 0.9 mm versus 3.7 ± 1.4 mm; p = 0.31). Sixty-two implants were placed after 6 month of healing with no significant differences between groups for number of implants, implant size, primary stability and survival.


rhBMP-2/ACS appears a realistic alternative for augmentation of the edentulous atrophic anterior maxilla.