Predictors of developmental dyslexia in European orthographies with varying complexity

Authors

  • Karin Landerl,

    1. Department of Psychology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria
    2. Department of Psychology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
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    • Equal contributors.

  • Franck Ramus,

    1. Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS, EHESS, Paris, France
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    • Equal contributors.

  • Kristina Moll,

    1. Department of Psychology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
    2. Department of Psychology, University of York, York, UK
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  • Heikki Lyytinen,

    1. Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
    2. Agora Center, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
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  • Paavo H. T. Leppänen,

    1. Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
    2. Agora Center, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
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  • Kaisa Lohvansuu,

    1. Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
    2. Agora Center, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
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  • Michael O’Donovan,

    1. MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
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  • Julie Williams,

    1. MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
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  • Jürgen Bartling,

    1. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Jennifer Bruder,

    1. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Sarah Kunze,

    1. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Nina Neuhoff,

    1. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Dénes Tóth,

    1. Institute for Psychology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
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  • Ferenc Honbolygó,

    1. Institute for Psychology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
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  • Valéria Csépe,

    1. Institute for Psychology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
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  • Caroline Bogliotti,

    1. Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS, EHESS, Paris, France
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  • Stéphanie Iannuzzi,

    1. Unité de Neurologie Pédiatrique, Hôpital des Enfants, Toulouse, France
    2. Inserm U825, Hôpital Purpan, Toulouse, France
    3. Centre de Référence sur les Troubles des Apprentissages, Hôpital Bicêtre, Paris, France
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  • Yves Chaix,

    1. Unité de Neurologie Pédiatrique, Hôpital des Enfants, Toulouse, France
    2. Inserm U825, Hôpital Purpan, Toulouse, France
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  • Jean-François Démonet,

    1. Inserm U825, Hôpital Purpan, Toulouse, France
    2. Leenards Memory Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
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  • Emilie Longeras,

    1. Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS, EHESS, Paris, France
    2. Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition UMR 5105 CNRS, Université Pierre Mendès France, Grenoble, France
    3. Centre référent pour le diagnostic des troubles du langage et des apprentissages, Département de pédiatrie, CHU Nord, Grenoble, France
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  • Sylviane Valdois,

    1. Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition UMR 5105 CNRS, Université Pierre Mendès France, Grenoble, France
    2. Centre référent pour le diagnostic des troubles du langage et des apprentissages, Département de pédiatrie, CHU Nord, Grenoble, France
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  • Camille Chabernaud,

    1. Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS, EHESS, Paris, France
    2. Centre de Référence sur les Troubles des Apprentissages, Hôpital Bicêtre, Paris, France
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  • Florence Delteil-Pinton,

    1. Centre de Référence sur les Troubles des Apprentissages, Hôpital Bicêtre, Paris, France
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  • Catherine Billard,

    1. Centre de Référence sur les Troubles des Apprentissages, Hôpital Bicêtre, Paris, France
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  • Florence George,

    1. Centre de Référence des Troubles d’apprentissage, CHU Timone, Marseille, France
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  • Johannes C. Ziegler,

    1. Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France
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  • Isabelle Comte-Gervais,

    1. Centre de Référence pour les Troubles des Apprentissages, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital E. Herriot, Lyon, France
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  • Isabelle Soares-Boucaud,

    1. Centre de Référence pour les Troubles des Apprentissages, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital E. Herriot, Lyon, France
    2. Centre Hospitalier Le Vinatier, Bron, France
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  • Christophe-Loïc Gérard,

    1. Service de Psychopathologie de l’enfant et de l’adolescent, Hôpital Robert Debré, APHP, Paris, France
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  • Leo Blomert,

    1. Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands
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  • Anniek Vaessen,

    1. Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands
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  • Patty Gerretsen,

    1. Regional Institute of Dyslexia, Maastricht, The Netherlands
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  • Michel Ekkebus,

    1. Regional Institute of Dyslexia, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    2. Neuroscience Center Zurich, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
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  • Daniel Brandeis,

    1. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    2. Neuroscience Center Zurich, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    3. Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    4. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim/Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany
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  • Urs Maurer,

    1. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    2. Neuroscience Center Zurich, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    3. Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA
    4. Institute of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
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  • Enrico Schulz,

    1. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    2. Neuroscience Center Zurich, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    3. Department of Neurology, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
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  • Sanne van der Mark,

    1. MR-Center, University Children’s Hospital, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
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  • Bertram Müller-Myhsok,

    1. Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany
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  • Gerd Schulte-Körne

    1. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Conflict of interest statement: No conflicts declared.

Abstract

Background:  The relationship between phoneme awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), verbal short-term/working memory (ST/WM) and diagnostic category is investigated in control and dyslexic children, and the extent to which this depends on orthographic complexity.

Methods:  General cognitive, phonological and literacy skills were tested in 1,138 control and 1,114 dyslexic children speaking six different languages spanning a large range of orthographic complexity (Finnish, Hungarian, German, Dutch, French, English).

Results:  Phoneme deletion and RAN were strong concurrent predictors of developmental dyslexia, while verbal ST/WM and general verbal abilities played a comparatively minor role. In logistic regression models, more participants were classified correctly when orthography was more complex. The impact of phoneme deletion and RAN-digits was stronger in complex than in less complex orthographies.

Conclusions:  Findings are largely consistent with the literature on predictors of dyslexia and literacy skills, while uniquely demonstrating how orthographic complexity exacerbates some symptoms of dyslexia.

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