What is known and Objective
The deleterious effect of vitamin D deficiency on bone health has long been known. More recent studies suggest a deleterious effect of low vitamin D (hypovitaminosis D) on general health. And specific studies propose an association between hypovitaminosis D and the aetiology and progression of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Given a commonly assumed lack of toxicity of vitamin D, routine measurement of plasma vitamin D and supplementation is rapidly becoming accepted general practice.
Authoritative practice guidelines have raised the level of vitamin D that is to be considered minimal for optimum health. This recommendation was based on a wealth of information and definitive evidence for skeletal benefits of vitamin D, but there was a lack of compelling evidence that hypovitaminosis D is causally related to extra-skeletal health outcomes such as diabetes. Hence, vitamin D supplementation for the purpose of achieving a level consistent with good health is evidence based, but measurement and supplementation for the purpose of preventing or treating T2DM is not.
What is new and Conclusion
Although the maintenance of adequate vitamin D levels is desirable for all patients, we conclude that routine measurement of vitamin D level in every patient or initiating high-dose supplementation for the purpose of preventing or treating T2DM is not evidence based.