Background  Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue and usually results due to traumatic implantation of soil organisms. Mycetoma can be eumycotic or acinomycotic in origin. Actinomycetoma is susceptible to a large number of chemotherapeutic agents, but the response is variable and affected by various factors such as extent of involvement, duration of disease, presence or absence of bony involvement and drugs used for treatment.

Aims and objectives  To describe our experience of various treatment regimens used for actinomycetoma.

Material and methods  It was a prospective, open label study of actinomycetoma. Ten patients who were diagnosed clinically as mycetoma were included in this study. All patients were completely evaluated and investigated including skin biopsy, Gram staining of grains and discharge, Ziehl –Nielson stain, KOH preparation, fungal and bacterial cultures and CT scan/Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), if required. Patients were treated with different treatment regimens, for example, Ramam regimen, modified Ramam regimen, Welsh regimen and its modification.

Results  Ten patients (eight males, two females) age ranging from 9 to 55 years (mean 29.6 years) were included in this study. Six patients were successfully treated with Ramam regimen, three patients were treated with our modified Welsh regimen (one of these three patients (case 7) initially failed to respond to Ramam regimen), and one patient was treated with modified Ramam regimen.

Conclusion  Ramam regimen was found to be quite effective in treating patients of actinomycetoma with only minimal bony involvement, while Welsh regimen and its modification should be used in case of severe disease due to amikacin being more sensitive than gentamicin in treating resistant organisms. Intensive phase of Modified Welsh regimen can be extended to five cycles in case of extensive bony involvement.