Background Prognosis of patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP) is controversial, with a 1-year mortality rate ranging from 6% to 48%.
Objective To determine the mortality rate of a large cohort of patients with BP and to identify prognostic factors associated with early mortality.
Methods Patients diagnosed with BP between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2010 in a referral unit for blistering skin diseases at a university hospital in Spain were studied retrospectively. Outcome measures were mortality rate during the first year after diagnosis, standardized mortality rate and poor prognostic factors.
Results A total of 101 patients were included in the study. The mean patient age at diagnosis was 77.8 years, and 52 (51.5%) were men. Overall mortality during the first year was 12.9%. We found a standardized mortality ratio of 2.33 [CI95 = (1.25–4.03)]. Advanced age (patient group >80 years old) was the only risk factor for lethal outcome found, with a multivariate risk estimate of 1.09 [CI95 = (1.02–1.16)]. No significant association with mortality was detected for comorbidities, hospitalization history or treatment received for BP.
Conclusions We found an increased mortality of our BP patients compared with the general population. The mortality rate of BP patients was 2.3 times the expected rate. Observed mortality rate was lower than described in previous European studies. Advanced age impacts the prognosis of patients with BP. Specific treatment for BP appeared not to influence survival.