Keratinocyte acantholysis as a result of pathogenic Dsg3-antibodies production by B cells leads to Pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Vitamin D, through its participation in several immune modulatory functions including B cells apoptosis, Th2 cell differentiation, apoptotic enzyme regulation and Tregs functions, may be actively involved in the immune regulation of PV.
To evaluate Vitamin D status in PV patients in comparison to controls in an attempt to determine its role in this autoimmune disease.
Using ELISA technique, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was determined for 34 pemphigus vulgaris patients and 20 healthy volunteers. Phosphorus and parathormone were also determined in the patient group.
25OHD was significantly lower in patients than controls (P = 0.008). There was a statistically significant difference between both groups regarding suboptimal Vit. D levels (P = 0.007).
Patients with PV have significantly lower serum vitamin D levels in comparison to controls and that these low levels were not related to age, BMI or pattern of sun exposure. The associated Vitamin D insufficiency in patients with PV may possibly exacerbate their disease through various immune related mechanisms.